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城乡规划视角下韧性理论研究进展及提升措施
师满江1, 曹 琦2
1.西南科技大学土木工程与建筑学院,讲师, shimanjiang@swust.edu.cn;2.(通 讯作者):西南科技大学土木工程与建筑学 院,讲师,caoqi@swust.edu.cn
摘要:
作为近年来社会—生态领域蓬勃 发展的新理念,韧性城市/韧性社区已成为 当今社会发展的重要议题和学术热点。但基 于城乡规划视角审视当前韧性理论和实践, 仍存在其概念模糊和理论难以指导规划实 践等问题。首先回顾了韧性、韧性城市和韧 性社区的理论发展及研究范式,梳理了当前 国际上主流的韧性城市、韧性社区测度方法 及指标体系。然后,对比分析了韧性理念下 的城乡规划与传统城乡规划的区别,并综述 了韧性理论指导城乡规划的国内外探索经验 和存在的问题。最后,基于以上研究,结合 新时期国土空间规划,提出了提升韧性理论 指导城乡规划实践的四种措施:完善韧性理 论体系;加强韧性规划的顶层设计;以社区 为突破口开展韧性社区规划理论和实践的 探索;并强调在此过程中重视理解当地知识 和公众参与。本研究扩展了新时期城乡规划 理论的研究范式,为城乡及社区防灾减灾规划编制提供了参考方法。
关键词:  城市韧性  城乡规划  国土空间规划  社区韧性
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190605
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目:灾 后重建区乡村社区韧性综合评价及规划 响应策略研究(51908475)、山地丘陵城 市建成区时空扩展与城市韧性协调发展 研究(417001172);科技部重点研发计划 (2017YFC1502903)
Research Progress and Improvement Measures of Resilience Theory Based on Perspectiveof Urban and Rural Planning
SHI Manjiang,CAO Qi
Abstract:
Due to climate change and environmental degradation, the nature we depend on for survival is becoming more and more exhausted, suffering from frequent disasters. It is found that the intensity, frequency and complexity of natural disasters in the Asia Pacific region are increasing in recent years. China is also one of the countries with frequent disasters in the world. Only taking the earthquake as an example, since the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, there have been 89 strong earthquakes over 5.0 ms in the mainland of China (excluding Taiwan Province), and only as many as 23 in the Southwest (data from China earthquake monitoring network, statistical date is until October 20, 2019). Some studies have also found strong mountain fissures in Southwest China in recent years, the seismic frequency seems to increase. In the face of disaster risk, only emphasizing the elimination of risk through technological progress and engineering physics may not be able to adapt to the trend of multiple disasters in the context of climate change. However, protecting community safety by avoiding exposure to risk as much as possible and enhancing the ability to cope with risk has gradually become a consensus of urban and rural disaster prevention and mitigation and disaster management. Researchers have long been concerned about whether those long exposed to disasters have the ability to "rebound" or recover without or without external assistance, which is called resilience by academia. Since the concept of resilience was put forward, the mode of disaster management has changed from passive defense to active adaptation, and the concept of "coexisting with disasters" rather than "eliminating disasters" has gradually become the core value of people's understanding of disasters under the concept of resilience, and the concept of resilience has increasingly become the focus of international organizations, governments and academia. Generally speaking, there is still a big gap between China and western developed countries in the research and practice of resilience in the context of disasters. Mainly reflected in following aspects. Firstly, the lack of systematic, global top-level design. The improvement of national resilience needs to be based on the systematic risk assessment grass-roots level in the context of multiple disasters, and be adapted to local conditions. But at present, the top-level planning of disaster resilience in China only focuses on flood control, earthquake and other typical disasters, and lacks systematic evaluation and top-level design of other typical natural disasters (such as typhoon, drought, etc.) and man-made disasters (natural gas leakage, chemical explosion, etc.). Secondly, the spatial planning and urban-rural infrastructure of disaster prevention and mitigation and disaster risk reduction cannot meet the demand of urban-rural resilience improvement in the new era. Despite the positive progress of urban infrastructure in recent years, there are still many urban “farce watching the sea” and chemical explosions. In addition, compared with cities, rural areas in China are in a state of no fortification for a long time, and the infrastructure for disaster prevention and mitigation and response is extremely backward. Thirdly, the practical exploration at the community level is relatively low. No matter in urban or rural communities, the planning practice of community resilience in China is almost blank, and there are few scientific researches, which is far from the construction needs of national resilient communities. As a new concept of vigorous development in the field of social ecology in recent years, but based on the perspective of urban and rural planning to examine the current resilience theory and practice, there are still some problems, such as fuzzy concept and it’s difficult to guide the planning practice. Firstly, it reviews the theoretical development and research paradigm of resilience, resilience city and resilience community, and combs the current international mainstream resilience city, resilience community measurement methods and index system. Then, it compares and analyzes the differences between the urban and rural planning under the resilience concept and the traditional urban and rural planning, as well as the ideas of integrating the resilience concept into the land space planning system in the new era. Finally, based on the current research progress of resilience theory, this paper summarizes the four implications of resilience theory for guiding urban and rural planning practice: improving the resilience theory system, strengthening the top-level design of resilience planning, exploring the theory and practice of resilience community planning with community as a breakthrough, and emphasizing the importance of understanding local knowledge and public participation in this process. This study expands the research paradigm of urban and rural planning theory in the new era, improves the guiding role of resilience theory in urban and rural planning in the context of disasters, and provides a reference method for urban and rural and community disaster prevention and mitigation and disaster recovery and reconstruction planning. However, China is also a country affected by multiple disasters. In the same period, the disaster risks in different regions are totally different, and the resilience of urban and rural communities is greatly different, and the resilience theory is constantly improving. If there are researches that the resilience planning overemphasizes the ability of self recovery of the system, it promotes the inherent conservatism and Neoliberalism; the resilience concept is about power in the planning system’s insufficient attention to distribution, policy awareness and fairness. Therefore, for a country with multiple disasters and great differences in disasters in China, the introduction and development of resilience theory should be closely combined with the actual needs, and it must be adapted to local conditions, time and disaster conditions.
Key words:  Urban Resilience  Urban Planning  National Land Space Planning  Community Resilience