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英国城市更新进程中历史环境保护的观念流变与制度解析
肖 竞1, 曹 珂2
1.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设 与新技术教育部重点实验室,副教授, ck8109@126.com;2.重庆工商大学旅游与国土资源学院,讲师
摘要:
在城乡建成环境保护与更新的矛盾 背景下,英国于20世纪90年代率先提出了“历 史环境”保护概念。历经二十余年制度调整, 英国历史环境保护如今已架构形成目标包 容、边界明晰的系统化管理体系。结合对英国 城市更新进程的回溯,系统分析其城乡遗产 保护的观念转变、体系架构与管理方式,介绍 其历史环境保护聚焦价值内涵、强调操作弹 性、遵循发展规律、重视公共利益的管理经 验,以资我国遗产保护工作启示和借鉴。
关键词:  城市更新  历史环境  可持续发展  保护管理  影响评价  规划许可
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190602
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目: 基于动态测评的历史街区微干预方法研 究——以成渝典型历史街区为实证案例 (51608063);重庆市技术创新与应用示范 项目(cstc2018jscx-msybX0327);重庆市教 委科学技术研究项目(KJQN201800824)
Ideology and Institution Analysis of British Historical Environmental Preservation in the Context ofUrban Regeneration
XIAO Jing,CAO Ke
Abstract:
In the 1990s, the United Kingdom proposed the preservation concept of “historical environment”. After more than 20 years of institutional adjustment, it gradually formed a preservation management system with clear structure and flexible operational mechanism. This paper combines with the analysis of the legislative process, system framework foundation and management operation methods of British heritage preservation, and introduces the British urban and rural historical environmental preservation experiences in detail. First of all, the concept of British historical environmental preservation was gradually developed during the practice of the preservation and management of its urban and rural heritage legislation. From Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882, to Town and Country Planning Act 1947, Civic Amenities Act 1967, National Heritage Act 1983, and so on, it has gone through four typical stages of operation with ancient monuments, conservation area and listed buildings, national heritage, and historical environment, which respectively represent the four important times of the concept budding, object expansion, system integration, and concept improvement in the ideological change of British heritage preservation. Secondly, in the United Kingdom, historical environment preservation involves various matters such as system construction, policy formulation, management decision-making, technical consultation, and fund raising. The above work is undertaken by state departments, non-sector public agencies, local governments and non-profit organizations. State departments includes Department of the Environment, Department of National Heritage, Ministry of Public Building and Works, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Department for Communities and Local Government. They are mainly responsible for legislation and policy formulation for heritage preservation. Nondepartmental public institutions are responsible for the registration and preservation of National Heritage Assets. They are also responsible for scientific popularization, personnel training, and legal consulting related to historical environmental preservation. Local governments include regional councils, city councils, and community councils, they are responsible for the protection and development control of historical environmental assets within their jurisdiction. Non-profit organizations are committed to the protection and management of special heritage objects such as ancient monuments, conservation areas, listed buildings, and historical gardens, and they also do some academic research, cultural dissemination, conservation consultation and management supervision works related to various historical environmental objects. In all, the concept of “historical environment” is an extension of the boundary of the traditional concept of “heritage”. It deepens the preservation from the perspective elements and values and had set higher standards for the preservation and management of world heritage. The British historical environmental preservation practice has accumulated rich experience in institutional framework, heritage division, management operation, and mechanism coordination. On analysis of the content of the above, this paper summarizes the value and public interest oriented preservation ideas, systematic and flexible operational paths, so as to enrich the experiences of our heritage preservation and management practice.
Key words:  Urban Regeneration  Historic Environment  Sustainable Development  Preservation Management  Impact Assessment  Planning Permission