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整体价值视角下风景名胜区保护对象认知研究
彭 琳
重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建 设与新技术教育部重点实验室,讲师, 317302723@qq.com
摘要:
明确保护培育的对象是风景名胜 区保护管理的基础。然而目前,如何系统划 分保护对象尚无统一规范,导致风景名胜区 存在保护对象认知不全面、保护措施不深入 等诸多问题。考虑到我国风景名胜区自然人 文高度融合的特征,研究从整体价值角度, 建立对风景名胜区保护对象的系统认知。基 于文献研究和综合微观分析,提出“驱动— 过程—结果”三大类保护对象,并以武夷山 风景名胜区为例进行实践。研究对于促进风 景名胜区的整体保护具有积极意义。
关键词:  风景园林  风景名胜区  保护培 育  整体价值  保护对象
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190601
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目: 基于整体价值认知的山岳型风景名胜区 风景资源评价模型研究(51708053); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金项目 (10112017CDJXY190003)
Recognition on Protected Objects of Scenic Spots from the Perspective of Holistic Value
PENG Lin
Abstract:
Clear understanding and defi nition of the scope of protected objects is the basis for the protection and management of scenic spots. However, at present, there is no uniform criteria or method to define and divide the protected objects. Several types of protected objects are mentioned in Regulations on Scenic Spots and Standard for Scenic and Historic Area General Planning, but it is not systematic and comprehensive, especially lack of attention to non-material elements and processes. In planning practice of scenic spots, protected objects are mostly simply listed by varied classification criteria, lacking analysis of mutual relations. Therefore it leads to many problems such as the fragmented understanding of scenic spots and the incomplete protection measures. For most of scenic spots in China, nature and culture are highly blended and integrated. Inspired by the relationship-based and integrated conservation strategy for protecting cultural heritage in China, and the concept of systematic value in western nature conservation fi eld, this study tries to set up a classifi cation system of protected objects based on a systematic cognition of the whole system of scenic spots. By the approach of literature research and comprehensive micro-analysis, the holistic value of scenic spots is put forward, which means the systematic function and spiritual signifi cance of the multi-level integrity of scenic spots. In the defi nition, the word integrity refers to the characteristics that the elements in the natural and humanistic system of the scenic spots are interconnected, mutually restricted, infi ltrated, even crystallized together, and integrated into one in the human spirit. According to the system theory, the systematic function and spiritual signifi cance such as vitality are often the result of emergence. One physical element of the scenic spot (such as a peak, archway, and building) is not necessarily high in value, but through certain natural and cultural mechanisms, the scenic spot as a whole shows extremely high functions or values. Emergence is a complex phenomenon. It is often diffi cult for us to directly and completely protect the results of emergence, but we can protect or even create conditions for emergence. Therefore, in order to protect the integrity and holistic value of the scenic spots, three categories of protected objects are proposed: drive, process and result. In the natural and humanistic system of scenic spots, the protection of driving factors is the key to promote the continuous occurrence and evolution of various processes. It mainly includes natural factors such as unique natural conditions and features, as well as spiritual ideas such as harmonious dwelling, landscape aesthetics, and religious beliefs. The protection of processes refers to the internal processes of natural systems, the internal processes of humanities systems, and the processes of interaction between humans and nature, including natural processes such as abiotic processes and biological processes, as well as unique cultural activities such as production and living activities, traditional folk etiquette, and experience. The protection of result refers to the material elements or features of protective value which are generated during the evolution and development of the whole system of scenic spots. It includes both natural elements such as rare and endangered animals and plants, ancient and famous trees, special features, food chains and other structural relationships, as well as human factors such as architecture and vicissitudes, as well as the regional spatial patterns, experience lines and sequences. The classification system of drive, process, and result combines material factors and non-material factors, which are more suitable for the constantly changing and dynamic natural humanistic system of the scenic spots. Finally, the Mount Wuyi Scenic Spot was taken as an example for preliminary application. Currently the main protection object in the overall planning of Wuyishan Scenic Spot belongs to the category of result. A large amount of protected objects are added as follows based one the interpretation of holistic value. Protected objects under the category of drive includes the natural conditions for the formation and development of Danxia landforms, the ideas of Feng Shui, the local worship of the gods of the rice and so on. The protected objects of process contain the formation and differentiation of endemic species, traditional production and living activities such as rock tea plantation, mountain and water aesthetic activities incorporating rock tea; the experience process of hanging the river to the top, etc. Some protected objects as result are also added, including potential biodiversity, diverse settlement forms, traditional village and rural scenery, and Jiuqu river experience sequence. The “drive-process-result” dividing system for the protected objects of the scenic spots under the perspective of overall value provides a cognitive framework. It’s expected that it will promote the protection of scenic spots from a curing way to be more dynamic.
Key words:  Landscape Architecture  Scenic Spots  Protection and Cultivation  Holistic Value  Protected Objects