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清代惠陵工程的施工管理与质量控制
汪江华1, 周水姣2
1.天津大学建筑学院,教授,tjdxwjh@163. com;2.天津大学建筑学院,硕士研究
摘要:
建筑工程施工和质量管理是中国古 代建筑工官制度的重要内容之一,但由于工 程案例和档案文献等限制,国内相关领域的 研究至今少有突破。本文以清代晚期同治皇 帝的惠陵工程为例,在系统整理与其相关的 “样式雷”工程图档的基础上,对其工程施 工管理和质量控制等方面的制度与安排进行 了挖掘和研究。
关键词:  清代皇家陵寝  清惠陵  样式雷  施工管理  施工质量
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190415
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(51008205); 天津市应用基础与前沿技术研究计划 (15JCYBJC22100)
The Construction Management and Quality Control of Hui Tomb of Qing Dynasty
WANG Jianghua,ZHOU Shuijiao
Abstract:
To achieve the effective management of the whole construction process, establishing a set of systematic and perfect construction management and quality control system is a consensus that has been repeatedly demonstrated and confirmed by modern engineering management science. In ancient China, in terms of planning, design and construction of projects, a relatively perfect system of engineers, regulations, standards and management system has been established. The existing research has also achieved fruitful results at the macro and meso levels. As one of the most important micro-level contents of the ancient Chinese architect system, the construction and quality management of projects is very important. Due to the limitations of engineering cases and archives, there are few breakthroughs in domestic research in related fields. Hui Tomb of Qing Dynasty is the tomb of Emperor “Muzong Tongzhi” in Qing Dynasty. As one of the models of imperial tomb building in late Qing Dynasty, Hui Tomb of Qing Dynasty is an important typical case for studying the imperial building project of Qing Dynasty because of its well-preserved architectural objects and the preservation of a large number of “Yangshi Lei” Engineering drawings reflecting its design and construction process. This paper only takes this as an example. At the micro-level, the concrete implementation measures and functions of construction management system and quality management system in the whole construction process are shown in detail from six aspects: application of laws and regulations, pre-construction preparation, on-site organization and management, key guarantee measures, quality inspection and maintenance responsibility, construction etiquette and reward incentives. At the legal level, the laws and regulations related to construction projects in the Qing Dynasty mainly include three forms: laws, separate laws and administrative norms. As far as the specific engineering design and construction management are concerned, the most important are the various engineering practice examples compiled by the Ministry of Engineering and the Interior Government respectively. Pre-construction preparation includes preliminary survey, excavation of sample pits in key areas, survey of road traffic and ground runoff, and cleaning up construction sites, to lay a solid foundation for smooth construction and engineering quality. As far as on-site organization and management, the engineer is responsible for organizing and directing the craftsman’s construction, quality inspection and acceptance of the daily site. In addition, the supervisors of the Agency are responsible for supervising the construction process and quality of craftsmen. In addition, in view of key sub-projects and key links in the construction process, a series of safeguard measures are taken to prevent them from being destroyed due to man-made or climatic reasons. Quality inspection and maintenance responsibility is divided into two process measures: construction process management and later period maintenance and accountability. During the construction process, all parts are sampled and tested, and the samples are archived for later tracing. The later period of guarantee is ten years, and the cost of repairing during the guarantee period is also provided. In terms of construction etiquette and reward, by formulating fixed working hours and providing overtime compensation and other measures to standardize the management of construction operations, unlike the personnel management in the modern engineering management system, the Qing Dynasty Royal Architectural Engineering is more in the form of construction etiquette or taboos to stimulate the initiative of officials and craftsmen and strengthen the discipline of construction. As concluded, based on the concrete implementation measures of the above six aspects, this paper elaborates the role of construction management system and quality management system in the whole construction process, which is of great significance for revealing the construction management system of Royal projects in Qing Dynasty systematically and comprehensively
Key words:  Royal Tombs of the Qing Dynasty  Hui Tomb Qing Dynasty  Yangshi Lei  Construction Organization  Construction Quality