|关键词: 清代皇家陵寝 清惠陵 样式雷 施工管理 施工质量
|The Construction Management and Quality Control of Hui Tomb of Qing Dynasty
WANG Jianghua,ZHOU Shuijiao
|To achieve the effective management of the whole construction process, establishing a
set of systematic and perfect construction management and quality control system is a consensus
that has been repeatedly demonstrated and confirmed by modern engineering management
science. In ancient China, in terms of planning, design and construction of projects, a relatively
perfect system of engineers, regulations, standards and management system has been established.
The existing research has also achieved fruitful results at the macro and meso levels. As one of
the most important micro-level contents of the ancient Chinese architect system, the construction
and quality management of projects is very important. Due to the limitations of engineering
cases and archives, there are few breakthroughs in domestic research in related fields.
Hui Tomb of Qing Dynasty is the tomb of Emperor “Muzong Tongzhi” in Qing Dynasty. As
one of the models of imperial tomb building in late Qing Dynasty, Hui Tomb of Qing Dynasty is
an important typical case for studying the imperial building project of Qing Dynasty because of
its well-preserved architectural objects and the preservation of a large number of “Yangshi Lei”
Engineering drawings reflecting its design and construction process. This paper only takes this
as an example.
At the micro-level, the concrete implementation measures and functions of construction
management system and quality management system in the whole construction process
are shown in detail from six aspects: application of laws and regulations, pre-construction
preparation, on-site organization and management, key guarantee measures, quality inspection
and maintenance responsibility, construction etiquette and reward incentives.
At the legal level, the laws and regulations related to construction projects in the Qing
Dynasty mainly include three forms: laws, separate laws and administrative norms. As far as
the specific engineering design and construction management are concerned, the most important
are the various engineering practice examples compiled by the Ministry of Engineering and the
Interior Government respectively. Pre-construction preparation includes preliminary survey,
excavation of sample pits in key areas, survey of road traffic and ground runoff, and cleaning
up construction sites, to lay a solid foundation for smooth construction and engineering quality.
As far as on-site organization and management, the engineer is responsible for organizing and
directing the craftsman’s construction, quality inspection and acceptance of the daily site.
In addition, the supervisors of the Agency are responsible for supervising the construction
process and quality of craftsmen. In addition, in view of key sub-projects and key links in
the construction process, a series of safeguard measures are taken to prevent them from
being destroyed due to man-made or climatic reasons. Quality inspection and maintenance
responsibility is divided into two process measures: construction process management and later period maintenance and accountability. During the construction process, all parts are sampled and tested, and the samples are archived for later
tracing. The later period of guarantee is ten years, and the cost of repairing during the guarantee period is also provided. In terms of construction
etiquette and reward, by formulating fixed working hours and providing overtime compensation and other measures to standardize the management
of construction operations, unlike the personnel management in the modern engineering management system, the Qing Dynasty Royal Architectural
Engineering is more in the form of construction etiquette or taboos to stimulate the initiative of officials and craftsmen and strengthen the discipline
As concluded, based on the concrete implementation measures of the above six aspects, this paper elaborates the role of construction
management system and quality management system in the whole construction process, which is of great significance for revealing the construction
management system of Royal projects in Qing Dynasty systematically and comprehensively
|Key words: Royal Tombs of the Qing Dynasty Hui Tomb Qing Dynasty Yangshi Lei Construction Organization Construction Quality