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多视角下的中国古代城市选址研究
唐由海1, 邱 建2
1.西南交通大学建筑与设计学院,博士研究 生,副教授;2.( 通讯作者):西南交通大学建筑与设计学院, 教授,博士生导师,2265156488@qq.com
摘要:
中国营城历史悠久,古代城市选址 历久弥新,是古代城市文明的重要积淀,见证 了古人处理复杂事物的智慧。近百年来,不 同领域学者针对古城选址开展了大量研究工 作,积累了丰硕成果。从城市史学、环境适应 性、区域城市群体、重点城市等多个视角对 这些成果进行梳理、归纳和分析后发现:古 城选址研究富有成效,实证与比较研究方法 的作用越来越凸显,系列成果已初步形成学 术框架体系;同时,如果加强立场的中立性研 究结论会更加客观,如果重视选址工作的动 态性研究结果会更加丰富。
关键词:  城市选址  城市史学  环境适应 性  区域城市群体  重点城市  中国古代
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190414
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上资助项目(51678487); 四川省科技支撑计划资助项目(2013FZ0009)
Studies on City Sites Selection in Ancient China with Multi Perspectives
TANG Youhai,QIU Jian
Abstract:
China has a long history of building cities, and the ancient city site is a problem that becomes even newer as time goes by. It is an important accumulation of ancient urban civilization, and witnesses the wisdom of the ancients in dealing with complex things. Since the ancient city of Chengtou Mountain in Jixian County before 6 000 years ago, there have been more than 4 300 towns on the land of China. The ancient towns have been repeatedly tested for thousands of years, and most of them have been used until now, becoming an important accumulation of ancient Chinese urban civilization. A good example is that the Beichuan and Qingchuan old county towns where the ancients were located did not cause much damage after the Wenchuan Earthquake. The idea of site selection in ancient Chinese cities has many sources. From the beginning of the ritual rules of the “Kao Gong Ji” in the pre-Qin Dynasty, the pragmatism of “Guan Zi”, and the mysticism and landscape aesthetic tendency of Geomancy after the Wei and Jin Dynasties, complicated and gradually diversifi ed. The practice of city site selection, although throughout the ancient social process (mainly in the pre-Qin and Han and Tang Dynasties), but the record is not complete, the vast majority of the site selection process is only scattered in the historical materials, and the combing and summarization is relatively lacking. In the past 100 years, scholars from different fi elds have carried out a lot of research work on the site selection of the ancient city and accumulated fruitful results. In general, these studies can be divided into multiple perspectives, including the perspective of urban historiography (including general history, key dynasties, etc.), environmental adaptation (including fl ood control, climate adaptability, Geomancy, etc.), regional urban group (including river basin cities, specific regional cities, etc.), important cities (including capital cities, local central cities, etc.). Among them, the study of urban historiography has a large time and geographical span, and it is more informative, especially the comparative study of different cities in the history of research, and the development clues of urban site selection are more and more accurate, but the pre-Qin period and Qin During the Tang Dynasty, there were more cities, which was the key stage of research. In the site selection study from the perspective of environmental adaptability, the research on fl ood control in urban sites has been more in-depth and systematic; the research on climate adaptation is more subjective; and however, the double superstition of geomancy itself and the study of the restricted area has not yet been completely eliminated. The geomantic ideology of mixed and sturdy remains to be further understood and analyzed. The research on site selection of regional group perspectives pays attention to the comparative study of site selection characteristics among different cities or regions, and focuses on urban groups in specific regions such as river basins, basins and plains. In the research of site selection from the perspective of important cities, the capital city is the focus of research. The subjectivity of the people in the site selection and the complexity of site selection gradually enter the research perspective, and the researchers realize that the urban site selection is a process of causal interaction. After combing, summarizing and analyzing these achievements, it is found that the branch of the ancient Chinese city site, which combines the history and urban geography, has grown from scratch, and the research on the site selection of the ancient city is fruitful, and the role of empirical and comparative research methods is becoming more and more prominent. The series of results have initially formed an academic framework system. At the same time, excessively advocating the ancient attitude does not enhance the national self-confidence and pride, but it loses the speculative position that the researchers should have. It is detrimental to the scientific and rational nature of the historical city construction, but if the neutrality of the position is strengthened, the conclusion will be more objective; urban formation is a dynamic process, and initial site selection does not allow the city to do it overnight. The emergence of a certain city will change and affect the production factors, traffic elements and environmental factors around it. This is an interactive process. Site selection cannot only study the “original point” of the city, but if we attach importance to the dynamic research of site selection, the results will be more abundant.
Key words:  City Site Selection  Urban Historiography  Environmental Adaptability  Regional Urban Group  Important Cities  Ancient China