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充气膜承冰壳结构形态设计及其建造实践
董 宇1, 崔 雪2, 罗 鹏1, 郭海博3
1.哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,副教授;2.哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,硕士研究生;3.( 通讯作者):哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,副 教授,guohb@hit.edu.cn
摘要:
充气膜承冰壳结构是通过对充气 膜喷溅液体材料,待其凝结成型后撤除充气 膜形成的冰壳结构,该技术始于20世纪40年 代的充气膜承薄壳混凝土结构。文章通过比 对混凝土薄壳和冰壳的差异性,梳理充气膜 承薄壳结构的发展主线,对其形态设计方法 进行总结。结合“2017哈尔滨国际冰雪建造 节”相关建造实践,从施工方案的拟定与实 践、施工材料的选择与工艺以及施工工法的 对比与分析三方面对充气膜承冰壳结构形态 设计与建造实践进行总结与备忘,并对其后 期维护相关条件与技术进行讨论。
关键词:  冰壳结构  充气膜  结构形态  建 造实践  冰雪建造
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190410
分类号:
基金项目:黑龙江省教育科学规划重点课题 (GBB1318034);黑龙江省高等教育教学 改革一般研究项目;国家自然科学基金面上 项目(51678177)
Structural Form Design and Construction Practice of Pneumatic Membrane Supporting Ice ShellStructure
DONG Yu,CUI Xue,LUO Peng,GUO Haibo
Abstract:
The pneumatic membrane supporting ice shell structure is formed by spraying liquid onto an inflated membrane, and removing the membrane when the mixed liquid solidifies. These early ice and snow constructions originate from the Inuit’s masonry “Igloo”. The initial trials of pneumatic membrane supporting ice shell structure technology commenced with a pneumatic membrane supporting a concrete shell structure in the 1940s. The construction methods are similar for both shells, and can be divided into five processes that include foundation preparation, pneumatic membrane connection, pneumatic membrane inflation, liquid material spray and removal of the pneumatic membrane. At this stage, the pneumatic membrane supporting ice shell structure is based on the application of material innovation, which is embodied by the water-wood fibre and water-paper fibre based ice composite material. Fibres distribute stress more evenly throughout the structure, and this provides the technical basis for the construction of large-span ice shells. This paper examines the main developments in pneumatic membrane supporting shell structures by comparing the concrete shell and the ice shell, and summarises the design form method for the latter. The design form of the pneumatic membrane supporting shell structure is based on both the physical shape-finding method and the digital simulation shape-finding method. The physical shape-finding method uses the pneumatic membrane, fabric and mesh rope as the template support, with liquid material sprayed onto the surface of the membrane until the mixed liquid solidifies. The digital simulation shape-finding method uses the pneumatic simulation plugin from Kangaroo to provide a realistic simulation environment, and this makes it possible to accurately determine the shape of the ice shell structure. By combining these methods with the related construction practices of the “2017 Harbin International Ice and Snow Construction Festival”, this paper provides a summary and a memorandum outlining the three principal aspects of the form design and construction practice, namely the preparation and practice of construction projects, the material selection and construction technology, and the comparison and analysis of construction methods. The preparation and practice of construction projects considers the “Zhonghua Xiangyun Tower” as a case study, and discusses the five processes consisting of the “ring beam anchor, pneumatic membrane connection, pneumatic membrane inflation, water-paper fibre composite ice spray and removal of the pneumatic membrane”. This is followed by a summary of the differences in the pre-design and construction practices. The materials selection and construction technology is focused on material innovation in the development of ice shell structure, with traditional “water-snow monomer materials” and innovative “reinforced composite ice materials”. The water-snow monomer material has a fast solidification rate with a simple construction method, but its mechanical properties are poor, and the ice shell has low bearing capacity. The reinforced composite ice material has excellent mechanical properties and high structural strength, making it possible to construct ice shells with larger spans. However, the solidification rate is slower, the construction method is more complicated, and more wet work is required on site. The comparison and analysis of the construction methods considers the two core construction activities of the pneumatic membrane connection and the liquid material spray. With the continuous advancement of construction technology, there are also significant differences between the “foundation construction nodes” and “spray construction techniques” amongst the various practice teams. The foundation construction nodes include rope connections, anchor connections and ring beam connections. The main differences in the spray construction techniques relate to differences in the spray material, the spray equipment and the spray environment. The post-maintenance requirements of the water-paper fibre in the pneumatic membrane supporting ice shell structure are affected by multiple factors such as climatic conditions and spray standards. Therefore, in order to maintain the performance of the ice shell structure, it is necessary to measure periodically the thickness of the ice layer on the sunny side and the shady surface to determine the maintenance spray requirements. At present, the construction of pneumatic membrane supporting ice shells is in the experimental stage, and there are many future development possibilities. Due to the minimal number of construction examples and the lack of relevant normative standards, as well as the considerable effect of external factors on the construction and maintenance process, it is necessary to propose a framework to transition from experimental construction to standard construction, and to define the construction process for ice shell structures
Key words:  Ice Shell Structure  Pneumatic Membrane  Structural Form Design  Construction Practice  Ice and Snow Construction