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垃圾处理的“特色小镇模式”实践与探索 ——以陕西西咸新区垃圾处理特色小镇为例
魏 博1, 张军飞2, 王海涛2
1.陕西省城乡规划设计研究院,教授级高级 工程师;2.陕西省城乡规划设计研究院,工程师, 448240705@qq.com
摘要:
垃圾处理成为困扰城市可持续发 展的一项世界性难题,需要系统谋划,全链 条推进。按照十九大“绿色低碳循环”发展 要求,结合案例城市建设绿色生态城区目标, 提出构建“垃圾处理+特色小镇”的可持续创 新理念,形成以垃圾处理为核心产业,集生态 文化、工业旅游、科教示范等多种功能于一 体的垃圾处理特色小镇模式。破解垃圾围城 和传统处理场所的“邻避效应”,实现垃圾处 理、利用、再处理、再利用的全产业链循环处 理综合解决方案。探索基于绿色发展理念的 垃圾处理创新模式,为新时期的垃圾循环处 理提供借鉴和参考。
关键词:  垃圾处理  特色小镇  西咸新区
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190408
分类号:
基金项目:
Practices and Exploration on the Characteristic Town of Garbage Disposal—A Case of Garbage Disposal Town in Xixian New Area of Shaanxi Province
WEI Bo,ZHANG Junfei,WANG Haitao
Abstract:
Garbage disposal has become a worldwide problem that plagues the sustainable development of cities. It is urgent to solve this problem by systematic planning. Based on the new concept of ecological civilization and green recycling, waste treatment needs to explore new models, new paths, new technologies and new functions. And the waste should be treated by the way of harmlessness, reduction and resource utilization. Some methods should be taken to resolve the “negative neighborhood effect” effectively and guide the formation of the “positive neighborhood effect”. For example, guiding the public through the popular science show and developing eco-tourism to understand the waste disposal process, facilities and impact on the surrounding environment. The evolution process of garbage disposal facilities has generally experienced three stages. The first stage is the single processing mode, which is mainly the way of landfill. The second stage is the mode of integrating industrial park, such as intravenous industrial park, circular economy industrial park, environmental protection industrial park, etc. The third stage is the mode of garbage disposal characteristic town. Until now, only one garbage disposal characteristic town which is located in Hangzhou called Tianziling vein town has been operated. And it initially explored the mode of combining garbage treatment with characteristic towns. The main methods of garbage disposal are sanitary landfill, high temperature composting and incineration. From the perspective of processing technology, foreign countries mainly use landfill, incineration, composting, comprehensive utilization, etc. These technologies and equipment have a high degree of mechanization. From the situation of various foreign treatment methods, there are the following trends: 1) Due to the tight energy and land resources in industrialized countries, the proportion of incineration treatment is gradually increasing. 2) Landfill method has always occupied a large proportion as the final disposal method of garbage. 3) Most of the developing countries especially agricultural countries are mainly composting. 4) Other new technologies, such as pyrolysis, reclamation, and mountain landscaping, are making continuous progress. China’s urban waste treatment started relatively late. According to the actual situation, some cities have made a useful exploration of urban waste treatment technology in recent years. And these cities have designed their own garbage mechanized composting production lines with Chinese characteristics based on learning the experience of foreign urban waste treatment technology. The success of building waste incineration plants in some cities also provided experiences for the application of incineration technology. The implementation of unified management and concentrated incineration of hospital waste embarked on a new road of special waste disposal as well. In accordance with the requirements of the “Green Low Carbon Cycle”, domestic and foreign waste treatment technologies and the current status of waste treatment in Xixian New Area, the combination of garbage disposal and construction of national characteristic towns is proposed. The concept of sustainable innovation in the characteristic towns is characterized by the combination of different types of garbage processing upstream and downstream modes. It builds an integrated garbage disposal characteristic town mode of taking the construction of garbage disposal as the core industry with integrating ecological culture, industrial tourism, popular science show and other functions. A comprehensive system-wide recycling solution for waste disposal has also been proposed with the goal of “reduction, reuse, and recycling”. The layout of the garbage disposal characteristic town takes the characteristic town as the core, which is surrounded by sanitation facilities. The aim is to solve the three problems as below. The first one is to reduce the difficulty of the construction of sanitation facilities. Second, it may solve the problem that the garbage can only be processed by a single process. Third, it may achieve the goal of sustainable development by combining waste compost with agricultural development. The garbage disposal characteristic town includes three core layers which are core area, control area and buffer zone. The core area also called waste comprehensive treatment area which covers an area of about 30 hectares. It mainly includes sorting, incineration, biochemical treatment, landfill and other facilities. Control area also called resource recycling area which occupies an area of about 50~70 hectares. It mainly includes facilities such as recycling, dismantling, recycling, and construction waste. The buffer zone also called science and education promotion business district covers an area of about 150 hectares. It mainly includes the functions of specialized experimental research, public environmental education, environmental theme tour guiding, and the experience of recycling technology and recycling products. The exploration of the treatment mode combining garbage disposal with characteristic towns is of great significance to the implementation of the national “no-waste city” construction. And it is also important to strengthen ecological environment protection. At the same time, the exploration has a large reference value for solving the problems of “garbage besieged city”, practicing the new development concept and building a green and low-carbon sustainable urban-rural area as well.
Key words:  Garbage Disposal  Characteristic Town  Xixian New Area