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健康为导向的建成环境与体力活动研究综述及启示
马 明1, 周 靖2, 蔡镇钰3
1.昆明理工大学建筑与城市规划学院,讲师, mm86323@uw.edu;2.中国建筑上海设计研究院有限公司,高级 工程师;3.同济大学建筑城规学院,教授,博士生导师
摘要:
快速城市化带来的民众体力活动下 降导致了一系列健康问题。提升体力活动是 规划设计干预市民健康的重要切入点,对于 两者关系和研究方法的梳理有助于从研究和 实践层面加强规划设计对公共健康的积极影 响。本文首先阐述了建成环境与体力活动研 究的背景和发展历程,从规划设计角度分别 对建成环境—体力活动—健康三者的关系、 建成环境与体力活动的测量、建成环境影响 体力活动环境因素这三个方面的研究进展进 行系统讨论,提出了健康导向的建成环境与 体力活动研究路径,探讨了未来研究的方向 及其对规划设计的启示。
关键词:  建成环境  体力活动  测量  影响 因素  健康
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190405
分类号:
基金项目:
Summary and Enlightenment of Research on Improving Health-Oriented Built Environment andPhysical Activity
MA Ming,ZHOU Jing,CAI Zhenyu
Abstract:
The decline in urban residents’ physical activity associated with built environment has led to a series of health problems. Physical activity can be utilized as an important entry point for planning and designing. It could indicate vulnerable environmental factors that reduce the risk of disease and thus improve the public health. The integrity of the two issues will help enhance the promotion of public health through design and planning. However, no research has been carried out on the issue of how to measure and define the factors of built environment and physical activities, which is a critical part to make the research more applicable and practical. This paper first examines the background and development process of the research on the built environment and physical activity. Historically, there are four stages of evolution in this field which indicate that the measurement is becoming more sophisticated and objectively quantified. Advanced and objective measuring technology would become the major trend in the future. From the perspective of planning and design, the triangle relationship between the built environment— physical activity—health is the key gateway to conclude that increasing physical activity could be an effective approach to improve public health. To further the research, there should be effort on both the measurement of the built environment and physical activity, as well as factors which built environment affects physical activity. Firstly, there are two approaches to carry out the measurement on either physical activity or built environment. No matter objective, subjective or compound, there are always advantages and disadvantages. Secondly, according to the literature review, this research summarized six elements through which built environment could significantly affect users’ physical activity: road connectivity, mixed use of land, accessibility of destination, walkability, environmental qualities. For the road connectivity, there sub-factors of network pattern, intersections density, network density, etc. For the land mixed-use, there are sub factors of Hesiman index and entropy model. For the destination accessibility, there are factors of commuting time, infrastructure accessibility. For the walkability, there are sub-factors of walkway density, infrastructures, etc. For the environmental qualities, there are sub-factors of safety and aesthetics, which subjectively affect users’ motivation of physical activity. The research progress in these aspects is systematically discussed in the article, and the research pathways of health-oriented built environment and physical activity is proposed, and the direction of future research and the enlightenment for planning design are discussed. Eventually there comes up with three promising research gateway in the future: 1)Enhance the longitude research approach on the relationship between built environment and physical activity in order to figure out the causal relationship between them; 2) Add holistic multi-factor research of built environment and physical activity in order to make up a comprehensive picture of the mechanism; 3) Emphasize the research on the unlinear relationship of built environment and physical activity which is close to how it runs in the reality.
Key words:  Built Environment  Physical Activity  Measurement  Factor  Health