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国家考古遗址公园发展十年回顾与实践思考
蔡 超
北京建筑大学建筑与城市规划学院,副教 授,caichao@bucea.edu.cn
摘要:
国家考古遗址公园作为大遗址保 护的有效手段和方式,已走过了十年的探索 与发展历程。本文通过不同种类公园的差 异比较,解析国家考古遗址公园的功能定 位;通过梳理103处国家考古遗址公园(含 立项),分析其价值代表性、遗产完整性和 国家示范性等3个基本特点;其后,对国家考 古遗址公园规划与建设实践中存在的建设时 序、遗址复建、景观塑造、居民搬迁,以及 价值阐释与展示中的阐释与展示关系、遗址 博物馆展示等6方面问题展开讨论;最后, 提出国家考古遗址公园目前发展趋势中的几 个问题应引起足够重视,分别是重手段,轻 研究;重建设,轻体验;重迎合,轻引导。
关键词:  国家考古遗址公园  功能  特点  实践  趋势  问题
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190403
分类号:
基金项目:住房城乡建设部科学技术计划与北京未来 城市设计高精尖创新中心开放课题资助项目 (UDC201710322)
Review and Reflection on the Development of National Archaeological Site Park in the Past Ten Years
CAI Chao
Abstract:
Since the second half of the 20th century, the process of urbanization has accelerated significantly with the industrialization, at the same time, a series of problems as population explosion, land shortage and urban construction have caused extensive and largescale destruction crisis to China’s large archaeological sites in the process of modernization construction. Fortunately, this kind of large-scale damage and encroachment has been avoided since 2009, which should be said that they have benefited greatly from the proposal and practice of the National Archaeological Site Park. The Park has turned the protection of large archaeological sites from the hidebound struggling mode to the mode in which social benefits are used in a rational way. It receives good protection effect as it makes concessions in order to gain advantages. As an effective means and way to protect large archaeological sites, the National Archaeological Site Park has gone through a decade of exploration and development. Although it has made a lot of achievements through this process, it is still a new thing with relative weak theoretical foundation, and there is still a huge space for improvement in both protection management and exhibition utilization. Based on the long-term practice of compiling plans for the National Archaeological Site Park, the author conducts academic discussions on the common problems existing in the current development of the Park on the basis of personal experience, understanding and thinking, so as to promote the healthy development of the National Archaeological Site Park. Firstly, through the comparison of different kinds of parks, this paper proposes that “archaeology”, “protection” and “exhibition” are the core function orientation of the National Archaeological Site Park, and the “site” is the image orientation, these two factors constitute the core competitiveness of the Park. Through analyzing 103 National Archaeological Site Parks (including projects), three characteristics of the Park are proposed as value prominence, heritage integrity and national demonstration. Secondly, there are many common problems in the planning and construction of the National Archaeological Site Park, which represent the opposition of the two common concepts or viewpoints in the industry, and reflect the weak theoretical foundation of the Park at the same time. This paper has carried on some in-depth discussions on some of these issues, which including: 1) the contradiction between the long-term nature of archaeological work and the urgency of park construction; 2) the contradiction between the authenticity of cultural heritage and the possibility of site reconstruction; 3) the contradiction between the background of the site environment and the gardenization of urban landscape; 4) the relationship between the construction of the Park and the aboriginal people. Thirdly, this paper puts forward that the interpretation and display of the National Archaeological Site Park’s value should be focused on these two connections between relationships: 1) the professionalism of site information and the accessibility of public understanding; 2) the primary and secondary relationships between archaeological sites and archaeological museums. The “Stonehenge, Avebury and surrounding sites” in Britain is taken as the example to expound the views of this paper. Finally, this paper points out that the National Archaeological Site Park should pay sufficient attention to the three bad trends in the current development process: 1) emphasis on means with neglect of the research; 2) emphasis on construction with neglect of the experience; 3) emphasis on catering with neglect of the guidance. The protection of archaeological sites is different from that of other types of cultural relics. Its development is restricted with the congenital defects as large scale, poor ornamental value, high vulnerability and strong professionalism, all of which are hard to overcome, however, the emergence of the National Archaeological Site Park provides a good path for the sustainable development. It is believed that the proper image of the Park would gradually become clear with the continuous deepening of practice and relevant theoretical research, as well as the improvement of current social attentions.
Key words:  National Archaeological Sites parks  Function  Attributes  Practice  Trend  Issues