|关键词: 国家考古遗址公园 功能 特点 实践 趋势 问题
|Review and Reflection on the Development of National Archaeological Site Park in the Past Ten Years
|Since the second half of the 20th century, the process of urbanization has
accelerated significantly with the industrialization, at the same time, a series of problems as
population explosion, land shortage and urban construction have caused extensive and largescale
destruction crisis to China’s large archaeological sites in the process of modernization
construction. Fortunately, this kind of large-scale damage and encroachment has been avoided
since 2009, which should be said that they have benefited greatly from the proposal and
practice of the National Archaeological Site Park. The Park has turned the protection of large
archaeological sites from the hidebound struggling mode to the mode in which social benefits are
used in a rational way. It receives good protection effect as it makes concessions in order to gain
As an effective means and way to protect large archaeological sites, the National
Archaeological Site Park has gone through a decade of exploration and development. Although
it has made a lot of achievements through this process, it is still a new thing with relative
weak theoretical foundation, and there is still a huge space for improvement in both protection
management and exhibition utilization. Based on the long-term practice of compiling plans for
the National Archaeological Site Park, the author conducts academic discussions on the common
problems existing in the current development of the Park on the basis of personal experience,
understanding and thinking, so as to promote the healthy development of the National
Archaeological Site Park.
Firstly, through the comparison of different kinds of parks, this paper proposes that
“archaeology”, “protection” and “exhibition” are the core function orientation of the National
Archaeological Site Park, and the “site” is the image orientation, these two factors constitute the
core competitiveness of the Park. Through analyzing 103 National Archaeological Site Parks
(including projects), three characteristics of the Park are proposed as value prominence, heritage
integrity and national demonstration.
Secondly, there are many common problems in the planning and construction of the
National Archaeological Site Park, which represent the opposition of the two common concepts
or viewpoints in the industry, and reflect the weak theoretical foundation of the Park at the
same time. This paper has carried on some in-depth discussions on some of these issues, which
including: 1) the contradiction between the long-term nature of archaeological work and the
urgency of park construction; 2) the contradiction between the authenticity of cultural heritage
and the possibility of site reconstruction; 3) the contradiction between the background of the
site environment and the gardenization of urban landscape; 4) the relationship between the construction of the Park and the aboriginal people.
Thirdly, this paper puts forward that the interpretation and display of the National Archaeological Site Park’s value should be focused on these
two connections between relationships: 1) the professionalism of site information and the accessibility of public understanding; 2) the primary and
secondary relationships between archaeological sites and archaeological museums. The “Stonehenge, Avebury and surrounding sites” in Britain is
taken as the example to expound the views of this paper.
Finally, this paper points out that the National Archaeological Site Park should pay sufficient attention to the three bad trends in the current
development process: 1) emphasis on means with neglect of the research; 2) emphasis on construction with neglect of the experience; 3) emphasis on
catering with neglect of the guidance.
The protection of archaeological sites is different from that of other types of cultural relics. Its development is restricted with the congenital
defects as large scale, poor ornamental value, high vulnerability and strong professionalism, all of which are hard to overcome, however, the
emergence of the National Archaeological Site Park provides a good path for the sustainable development. It is believed that the proper image of
the Park would gradually become clear with the continuous deepening of practice and relevant theoretical research, as well as the improvement of
current social attentions.
|Key words: National Archaeological Sites parks Function Attributes Practice Trend Issues