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高速城镇化进程下的大遗址整体保护规划策略研究 ——以良渚古城遗址为例
陈同滨1, 王琳峰2, 刘翔宇2, 袁守愚3
1.中国建筑设计研究院有限公司建筑历史研 究所,研究员,chtb2000@aliyun.com;2.中国建筑设计研究院有限公司建筑历史研 究所,副研究员;3.中国建筑设计研究院有限公司建筑历史研 究所,建筑师
摘要:
良渚古城遗址是我国新石器时代长 江下游环太湖地区重要的大型考古遗址,分 布范围100多平方公里,位于长三角经济发达 地区杭州市余杭区,在遗址保护方面的压力 突出表现为我国城镇化高速发展态势下土地 资源特别紧缺与经济发展特别急速的矛盾, 主要涉及城镇建设、土地利用、道路交通、社 会居民调控4个方面。本文以良渚古城为例, 探讨了在高速城镇化背景下面临上述发展压 力与环境因素的大型考古遗址整体保护规划 策略。
关键词:  城镇化  良渚古城遗址  发展压 力  整体保护  规划对策
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190402
分类号:
基金项目:
Planning Strategy of Overall Conservation of Large Heritage Sites under Rapid Urbanization—A Case Study from the Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City
CHEN Tongbin,WANG Linfeng,LIU Xiangyu,YUAN Shouyu
Abstract:
Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City (3300—2300 BC) is a notable large archaeological site of the late Neolithic period, which located in the Circum-Taihu Lake Area along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is known as “the sacred place of more than 5 000 years of civilization in China”. The sites distribute over an area of above 100km2 in Yuhang District in Hangzhou, where the city has become one of the most developed cities in the Yangtze River Delta. Development pressures of Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City mainly come from the conflict between very limited land resources and fast economic development in the developed area of Yangtze River Delta under fast urbanization in the last 20 years. It is manifested in four aspects. 1) Urban construction, mainly from urban construction in 1 city and 2 towns. 2) Land utilization, in the protection area of the nominated property, in terms of the nature of land utilization, the construction land will generate direct interference to the nominated property, which has much stronger influence than the non-construction land; and the issue of ownership will influence the feasibility in managing the nominated property. Therefore, the issues of land utilization mainly involves the nature of land utilization and ownership. 3) Road traffic. Road traffic within the area of Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City faces increasing demands of through traffic resulted from rapid urban development. Especially, the newly discovered archaeological sites and the accordingly announced protection scope gradually turns the planned or built urban traffic facilities into direct factors negatively affecting heritage protection. It has become a main task to handle in protection. In the last 80 years, there were mainly three through traffic lines: Xiangpeng Line the old National Highway, the West Double Track of Hangzhou Beltway and the west line of Xuancheng-Hangzhou Railway. 4) Regulation of residents. Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City are under the pressure of residents from one city and two towns, especially pressure from the improvement of their housing conditions and the development of enterprises as rural residents’ income increase rapidly. House building activities of residents who live on the physical fabric of the nominated property have the most immediate effects on heritage protection. In this article, the overall conservation planning strategy of large archaeological sites, which confronts with pressures mentioned above, like the Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City, is discussed. The results of our research are applied in Conservation and Management Planfor Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City, which is mainly used to guide heritage managers to solve the protection and management problems faced by the sites. Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City has four types of main artificial ruins and its related environment, including city site, peripheral water conservancy system, graded cemetery (including altars), unearthed jade artifacts represented by jades of the Liangzhu culture, and other natural environment elements, such as the historical and landscape related elements, and various factors directly related to the protection and management of feature carriers. According to the construction pressure of economically developed areas, the plan studies how to formulate the overall protection plan and engineering countermeasure of the heritage value under the principle of minimum intervention according to the characteristics of the heritage value and the actual situation of the heritage land, as well as the sustainable development strategy of the heritage society. Thus, based on the concept of complete protection of heritage elements and sustainable social development of heritage sites, we carried out the protection management system, innovatively put forward the next guidance of special planning, upward and urban level planning to link each other, and the introduction of the government’s special policy support mechanism of the “three-level planning convergence” of the large site sustainable protection and development strategy. We combined the intensity with importance of the distribution of archaeological remains, according to the safety, integrity and coordination of the protection requirements of the site, the protection management area is classified into three levels. With the help of spatial control means of urban and rural construction, the plan adopts the way of containing the urbanization process inside the heritage area and strengthening the urbanization process outside the heritage area, including controlling the direction of the town’s development away from the heritage site, building a traffic network outside the buffer zone to ease internal traffic, population controlling, promoting content implementation in stages and batches according to protection requirements, so that the heritage value elements and historical environment and natural ecological characteristics of Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City can be preserved in a true and complete way, and the heritage value is presented to the public through systematic interpretation and an appropriate way to achieve the overall protection goal of the large site, and to coordinate the social sustainable development of the site location.
Key words:  Urbanization  Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City  Development Pressure  Overall Conservation  Planning Strategy