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作为文化景观的历史城镇 ——兼谈历史城镇与传统村落和城市遗址的关系
孙 华
北京大学文化遗产保护研究中心,教授, 2628425584@qq.com
摘要:
历史城镇和传统村落都属于兼具 物质和非物质文化遗产特征的“活态”的文 化景观,历史城镇下面还往往叠压着城市遗 址,这些遗产类型都既有联系,又有区别, 在历史城镇保护时需要统筹予以考虑。保护 历史城镇既要保持其横向空间的完整性, 也要保护其纵向时间的完整性,还要保持 传统的延续性,这样才说得上是完整地保 存了历史信息。
关键词:  历史城镇  传统村落  文化景观  城市遗址  遗产保护
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190401
分类号:
基金项目:
Historic Town As Cultural Landscape—The Relationship Between Historic Town, Traditional Village and Urban Archaeological Site
SUN Hua
Abstract:
Human habitats can be broadly classed into rural and urban settlements, which when inhabited continuously over a long period of time, become traditional villages and historic towns, or otherwise turned into rural and urban archaeological sites; or at times where the archaeological remains and the historic settlements co-exist. When preserving historic towns, one need to understand the co-relations and distinctions between these heritage genres. Historic towns are “living” urban areas that have existed for a long period of time and have continued to evolve and develop while retaining vestiges from different time periods. The continuous human inhabitation in historic towns provided the basis for both tangible and intangible heritage, and can be considered as cultural landscape. If the settlements were abandoned and destroyed at some point of time, they then become ruins or urban archaeological sites. Traditional villages are also considered as “living” cultural landscapes, but differs from the urban cities and towns in terms of scale, population, administrative hierarchy, social structure, economies and lifestyle. The main difference between historic town and traditional village is that the latter includes not only settlement but also agricultural fi elds and the natural setting of mountain, forests and rivers; whereas historic town is defi ned only by the structures within the town boundaries. The conservation of traditional villages therefore not only includes the core settlement area and also the outer fi elds and natural boundaries. Both historic town and traditional village contains both tangible and intangible heritage elements, and is a form of “cultural space” where the intangible heritage can persist. Cultural landscape is a complicated cultural entity which includes both historic fabric and traditions. Consequently, the preservation of historic towns and traditional villages will include both tangible and intangible elements, and the key to preserving intangible traditions is to retain the indigenous population. Historic urban areas and urban archaeological sites are obviously different in nature and vision form. The former is occupied by people who are closely associated with the extant architecture and structures, and their behaviors continue to shape the boundaries and landscape forms of historic towns. In contrary, urban archaeological sites are in an abandoned form, and therefore presents a ruined or unattended savage landscape. Urban archaeological sites are often completely or partially buried underneath modern cities, and settlements that are rebuilt on urban ruins, after certain period of development, will become a historic town superimposed with different layers of urban remains. Therefore, urban archaeological sites and historic towns have certain co-relations in time and space, and distinctions in city morphologies and landscape forms. When preserving historic towns, one must bear in mind that the subterranean urban archaeological sites are also an important component of the extant historic town. To conclude, in order to effectively preserve historic town, the following measures need to be taken: 1) enhance policies, regulations and implementation framework relevant to protection of historic town; 2) properly understand the nature and characteristics of historic town in order to systematically preserve it as an organic entity instead of only its superficial material form; 3) establish a holistic conservation approach towards historic town, preserving the integrity of its temporal development and spatial layout; 4) in addition to elements within the urban boundaries, historic roads that connects between cities are also material evidence of historic city networks and need to be properly preserved
Key words:  Historic Town  Traditional Village  Cultural Landscape  Urban Archaeological Site  Heritage Conservation