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我国城市规划实施评估发展历程、技术特征与演变趋势
祝立雄1, 董文丽2, 李王鸣3
1.浙江大学建筑与工程学院,博士研究生, zhulixiong2004@126.com;2.浙江大学建筑与工程学院城乡规划与设 计研究所,讲师;3.浙江大学建筑与城市发展国际研究中心, 教授,博士生导师
摘要:
在20余年的发展过程中,国内城市 规划实施评估从“评估源起”到“聚焦总规” 再到“多元拓展”,形成了相对固化的评估模 式。其技术特征表现在五大方面,即规划落 实的检验、实施过程的分析、实施问题的研 判、公众反馈的归纳和优化实施的建议。该 评估模式的逻辑基点是将评估视为一个实 证命题,以实证主义方法为手段,重事实描 述轻价值判断,体现出鲜明的“实证本位、 测量导向”特征。然而,无论是从评价活动 的本质要求还是从政策科学的基本规律来 看,实证与规范相结合,从测量导向到测量、 判断、解释、对策的综合导向,是评估发展 的必然要求,构成了规划实施演变趋势的基 本内涵。
关键词:  城市规划实施评估  实证评估  规 范评估
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190209
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金资助项目 (51508499)
The Development Process, Technical Characteristics and Evolution Trend of Urban PlanningImplementation Evaluation in China
ZHU Lixiong,DONG Wenli,LI Wangming
Abstract:
The evaluation of urban planning implementation in China originated around 1996. It is not only a response to the query of “planning effectiveness”, but also a revision of the phenomenon of “paying attention to revise, neglecting of reflection”. In the course of development for more than 20 years, it has experienced three stages: the origin of evaluation, focusing on master plan and pluralistic development. At first, it draws lessons from Western planning evaluation theory, and carries out a preliminary theoretical framework. The evaluation practice has been carried out in Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Zhejiang Province. With the promulgation of the new edition of Urban and Rural Planning Law and the Evaluation Method for the Implementation of Urban Master Planning, the evaluation has gradually been legalized and standardized. At the same time, urban master plan has become the core object of evaluation. Under the influence of “scientism” in urban planning, instrumental rationality has become the dominant factor. The application of comprehensive evaluation theory and method develop rapidly in evaluation. Since then, a relatively mature and standard evaluation model has basically come into being. And mode solidification also means the germination of new changes. Since 2013, the evaluation has gradually developed towards diversification. Firstly, it expands the target of evaluation, from general planning to various types of statutory and nonstatutory planning. Secondly, the evaluation perspective is focused from holistic assessment to in-depth thematic assessment. Finally, the innovation of evaluation tools reflected in the increasing application of large data and remote sensing data in evaluation. On the whole, the content and method system of urban planning implementation evaluation in China are basically clear. The content includes four aspects: the test of the implementation of planning content, the analysis of the mechanism of the implementation process, the research and judgment of the planning implementation issue and the suggestion of the optimization of the implementation of planning. In terms of evaluation methods, qualitative analysis is used for the spatial structure system, policy measures, implementation guarantee mechanism and implementation effect, and quantitative analysis is used for planning phased objectives, indicators, proportions, public satisfaction. From a large number of practical cases, although the evaluation content is involved in all aspects, its structural proportion shows obvious non-equilibrium. Checking the implementation of planning content becomes the core task of evaluation. The main content of the evaluation is to measure the conformity of material space construction and to quantitatively consider the implementation of target indicators. This leads to a strong “positivism” feature in the evaluation work, that is, “the description of facts is more importantthan the dialectics of value” in content and “the tendency of mathematical and physical positivism” in method. Positivism is considered to be a philosophical thought rooted in rationalism. It is based on the dichotomy of fact and value, which requires an absolute and objective understanding of planning and implementation. On this basis, it seems that the evaluation of value in planning implementation has become redundant, and value judgment has been excluded or even dismissed. In the author’s opinion, this model of “empirical evaluation” originates from the cognitive basis that implementation evaluation is regarded as an empirical proposition. There are two reasons: from the point of view of planning management, evaluation is defined as “inspection” and “supervision”; from the point of view of planning technology, the “relative correctness” of planning itself makes evaluation need not carry out too much normative analysis. From the current point of view, the two basic conditions of empirical evaluation have been shaken. The original empirical-based evaluation model will also change. Whether from the essence of evaluation activities or from the development experience of policy evaluation, the combination of empirical and normative is the inevitable trend of the evolution of evaluation work. Empirical evaluation answers “what is the fact” and normative evaluation answers “what should it be?” The former takes “measurement” and “interpretation” as tasks, while the latter takes “judgment” and “choice” as objectives. All of them are indispensable for evaluation. The combination of demonstration and norm, from measurement orientation to comprehensive orientation of measurement, judgment, interpretation and countermeasures, is the inevitable requirement of evaluation development. It constitutes the basic connotation of the evolution trend of planning implementation. The evaluation of urban planning implementation is of great significance to the improvement of planning work. The evaluation of planning implementation in China is at the initial stage, and most of the evaluation practices are quick and operational evaluation, but there are more and more independent, perfect and in-depth research assessments. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the process, technical characteristics and development trend of the evaluation of planning implementation in China, hoping to provide ideas and basis for the innovation of evaluation scientific thinking and methods.
Key words:  Urban Planning Implementation Evaluation  Evaluation Mode  Empirical Evaluation  Normative Evaluation