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我国体育建筑屋顶采光通风策略演变研究
侯 叶1, 孙一民2
1.华南理工大学建筑学院、亚热带建筑 科学国家重点实验室,博士研究生, 402284129@qq.com;2.华南理工大学建筑学院、亚热带建筑科学 国家重点实验室,长江学者特聘教授、博士 生导师
摘要:
屋顶采光通风对体育建筑的健康 可持续发展有重要意义。本文对我国体育建 筑不同时期的屋顶采光通风情况进行回顾梳 理,分析近代时期、现代时期、改革开放到新 千年间的当代时期及新千年后的当代时期我 国体育建筑的屋顶采光通风发展演变。通过 案例研究和类型归纳,总结出我国体育建筑 屋顶采光通风的演变特征及其发展的制约因 素,并探讨未来“新常态”下我国体育建筑屋 顶采光通风的设计策略。
关键词:  体育建筑  屋顶  采光  通风
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190204
分类号:
基金项目:家自然科学基金面上项目资助(51778233); 国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流 项目资助(51761135025)
Research on Evolution of Roof Lighting and Ventilation Strategies for Sports Buildings in China
HOU Ye,SUN Yimin
Abstract:
Roof lighting and ventilation are of great significance to the healthy and sustainable development of sports buildings. Natural lighting and ventilation are important means to reduce energy consumption, and provide a more comfortable physical environment and achieve sustainable development for sports buildings. Because of the large internal space of the gymnasium and the space between the gymnasium and the external environment, the natural lighting and ventilation by the side window is difficult. Roof lighting and ventilation through appropriate strategies is an important way to reduce energy consumption and improve comfort in daily use. This paper reviews the evolution of roof lighting and ventilation of sports buildings in China in the four development periods. In modern times from 1840s to 1940s , because of the high cost of electricity and electric lights and the scarcity of air-conditioning facilities, stadiums and gymnasiums always preferred to strengthen natural ventilation and lighting by setting roof skylights. In modern times from 1940s to 1970s, the level of power and air-conditioning facilities in gymnasiums has been improved, and the roof rainwater leakage prevention technology has not met the standards. Therefore most of the gymnasiums did not make roof skylights. In the contemporary period from “reform and opening up” to the new millennium, in order to reduce the daily use cost and increased the multi-functional use of venues, the natural lighting demand of sports buildings was highlighted, and the proportion of skylights was increased. The mode of roof lighting and ventilation window derived from three types: setting convex lighting windows on roof, setting skylights at staggered positions of roof and setting skylights by height difference of roof. In the contemporary era after the new millennium, not only has the traditional roof lighting and ventilation mode been deepened in design and technology, but also new roof ventilation and lighting modes have emerged, such as semi-permeable material lighting roof, retractable roof of lighting and ventilation, light guide tube lighting roof, etc. Based on the analysis of lighting and ventilation design of Chinese sports buildings in four periods, it can be found that roof natural lighting and ventilation has a long history of application in Chinese sports buildings. In modern times from 1840s to 1940s, there were reasonable designs of roof lighting and ventilation, which highlighted its inherent necessity and tradition. In modern times from 1940s to 1970s, restricted by the level of design and technology, its development has stagnated. During the period from “reform and opening up” to the new millennium, different roof skylights were explored under the demand of multi-functional use of venues. After the new millennium, with the further development of structure, materials, facilities and equipment technology, as well as the joint promotion of multi-functional demand and sustainabledevelopment demand, the design strategy of natural lighting and ventilation in sports buildings has further diversified development. On the basis of case study and type induction, this paper concludes that the development motivation of roof lighting and ventilation in sports buildings in China has gone through a process from passive to active, and the mode selection has gone through a process from single to multiple, from simple to complex. And the constraint factors of which development mainly include the reaction force of the development of facilities and equipment technology. The influence of excessive attention to “skin” in architectural design. The influence of the immature rational application of new materials and technologies, for example, the use of light semi-permeable materials in the whole roof would have the problems of light insulation, sound insulation and energy consumption to be balanced and solved, and the construction of retractable roofs deviates from the actual needs. In addition, it was also affected by the functional requirements of special venues, for example, under the influence of large-scale, high-specification and influential NBA venues, some venues without similar needs were designed blindly with the “black box”. Finally, the article discusses the three design strategy of lighting and ventilation on the roof of sports buildings in China under the “new normal state” social background in the future, including the organic integration of form—combine the setting of lighting vents with the building materials and structures, so that the form of lighting vents and the form of the building itself integrated organically. The function based on rationality— digital simulation and digital analysis can provide more rational location and form of the roof lighting vents. And the combination of old and new technology—with rational treatment of new technology and rational innovation of traditional technology.
Key words:  Sports Buildings  Roof  Lighting  Ventilation