|关键词: 体育建筑 可视化 空间趣味性 循环连续性 使用者角度 运动员最优先
级 开放式场馆 融合
|Sports Environment Theory—“Visible” Sports Facilities Making the City More Vibrant
SENDA Mitsuru,KAWAKAMI Masamichi,YANG Xiwei
|Through systematic researches in recent years and solid observation and practice of
designing sports architecture, Mitsuru Senda has refined the relationship between environment,
people, activities and space, and has provided functional and unique experience to users and
managers of the sports facilities. The article specifically categorizes the use scenarios of
different people in different situations associated with sports as audience watching, athletes
playing, manager operating and visitors for just enjoying the atmosphere. Audience should
be satisfied by the game. The facility also must satisfy them and let them feel to come again.
It will increase the number of audiences and will also lead to increase profit which directly
affects the management of both game and facility. When the audience increase, it will affect
the performance of the athletes. “Athlete first” is a trend term in the sports industry but
focusing on architectural designing, “athlete first” will be synonymous and co-prosperity
for satisfying the audience partially. Certainly, it is necessary to create a safe and relaxing
environment to let them concentrate on their performance. Sometimes “athlete first” is used as
an opponent to “operator first”. Although it is an important factor to make an efficient space for
managing which will directly affect the cost for the operation and maintenance of the facility.
The space balance of satisfying these three groups should be the basic object for architects.
Usually the last group is forgotten or ignored because their relations to the facility is indirect,
but this free act is very important for area management. By this, sports facilities will act as an
important element in the city. The design for the Hiroshima Baseball Stadium is a successful
example showing the balance and the result for creating an idealistic relation with the city.
The sports facilities introduced in the article, are some successful samples of evolving
countless exciting moments of time and space that influence the society and city through
creating the visibility in sports facilities. To design the balance, it is important to have a
concept to create physical and phycological transparency for visibility, accessibility and
openness in the facility. Additionally in our architectural design, we use the circular play
system theory as a result of a long time research on play environment by Senda lab as a
backbone. There are 7 design key elements to satisfy the circular play system theory: 1.
must have a circular function; 2. the circulation route must be safe and filled with variety of
experience; 3. must include highly symbolic spaces and places; 4. must have places in the
circulation where one can feel “dizziness”; 5. must be able to make a shortcut in the circulation;
6. plaza spaces should be attached to the circulation; 7. the whole should be formed as porous
space. These 7 elements are the basic conditions to satisfy a children’s play environment, and it
is also able to divert into more universal environment. Combined with the 7 design elements ofthe circular play system theory, the most important concept is to create a mental circulation as, “want to visit the place → go to the place →join
activities at the place →feel happy →want to visit again”, by the diverse experiences supported by the physical space circulation which stimulate
one’s imagination and make the environment “transparent”. As mentioned above Hiroshima Baseball Stadium is a successful example for this
circulation. The Tatsumi Swimming Center has the visible connection to the surrounded environment of the old canal. The wide open window
to the canal is against the conventional manners of building competition space, but the time records of the swimmers show that the result of the
facility environment is good for competition ultimately.
Scenes as the “open-air venues”, openable and closed design techniques make opportunities for spatial integration inside and outside
activities, and bring dynamic surprise to facility users. Tajima Dome is an example to connect the outdoor environment, and Shanghai Tennis
Stadium is for the changing the relation with the sky. Tajima Dome was designed to be a sports museum with play structures leading children to
discover the environment, placed indoor and outdoor. It is functioning as a base center of cultural exchanging, staying type tourism and for the
local regional development. Shanghai Tennis Stadium is now a well-known international stadium for the ATP Masters tournament. The openable
roof brings in various events besides the tennis games as an international swimming event.
It is quite obvious by these examples that the transparency of the facility will lead to success in both functional and commercial sides for not
only the facility but the surrounding whole area as well.
|Key words: Sports Architecture Visualization Spatial Interest Cyclical Continuity User Perspective Athletes’ Highest Priority Open Venues Integration