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体育环境论 ——“可以看得到的”体育设施使城市更加富有活力
仙田满1, 川上正伦2, 杨熹微3
1.日本环境建筑家,东京工业大学名誉教授, 放送大学客座教授,日本环境设计研究所 会长,日本儿童环境学会代表理事;2.工学博士,日本101设计创始人,日本一级 注册建筑师;3.天津博桑建筑设计咨询有限公司,日本一 级注册建筑师,1280738330@qq.com
摘要:
仙田满通过近年来的系统性研究 和针对体育建筑扎实的观察和实践,将环 境、人、活动、空间这几者相互关系进行精 细化设计,提供给体育设施的使用者、管理者 充分满足功能要求且独具特色的体验。本文 针对与运动相关联的环境中不同的人群在不 同空间的使用场景进行分类,通过“可以看 得到的”的可视化设计手法、结合游戏环境 的设计七要素,着重强调设计中“空间趣味 性”的“循环连续性”所创生的多样性;通过 “使用者角度”的关系场景拓扑,设计出“运 动员最优先”的参赛体验,同时为观众创造出 多样的观赛场景;通过“开放式场馆”可开 闭设计手法、创造出内外积极融合的空间变 化契机,带给设施使用者惊喜。体育设施的 设计匠心,在构思细部中得以体现,演变出无 数令人流连忘返的精彩时空瞬间。
关键词:  体育建筑  可视化  空间趣味性  循环连续性  使用者角度  运动员最优先 级  开放式场馆  融合
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190203
分类号:
基金项目:
Sports Environment Theory—“Visible” Sports Facilities Making the City More Vibrant
SENDA Mitsuru,KAWAKAMI Masamichi,YANG Xiwei
Abstract:
Through systematic researches in recent years and solid observation and practice of designing sports architecture, Mitsuru Senda has refined the relationship between environment, people, activities and space, and has provided functional and unique experience to users and managers of the sports facilities. The article specifically categorizes the use scenarios of different people in different situations associated with sports as audience watching, athletes playing, manager operating and visitors for just enjoying the atmosphere. Audience should be satisfied by the game. The facility also must satisfy them and let them feel to come again. It will increase the number of audiences and will also lead to increase profit which directly affects the management of both game and facility. When the audience increase, it will affect the performance of the athletes. “Athlete first” is a trend term in the sports industry but focusing on architectural designing, “athlete first” will be synonymous and co-prosperity for satisfying the audience partially. Certainly, it is necessary to create a safe and relaxing environment to let them concentrate on their performance. Sometimes “athlete first” is used as an opponent to “operator first”. Although it is an important factor to make an efficient space for managing which will directly affect the cost for the operation and maintenance of the facility. The space balance of satisfying these three groups should be the basic object for architects. Usually the last group is forgotten or ignored because their relations to the facility is indirect, but this free act is very important for area management. By this, sports facilities will act as an important element in the city. The design for the Hiroshima Baseball Stadium is a successful example showing the balance and the result for creating an idealistic relation with the city. The sports facilities introduced in the article, are some successful samples of evolving countless exciting moments of time and space that influence the society and city through creating the visibility in sports facilities. To design the balance, it is important to have a concept to create physical and phycological transparency for visibility, accessibility and openness in the facility. Additionally in our architectural design, we use the circular play system theory as a result of a long time research on play environment by Senda lab as a backbone. There are 7 design key elements to satisfy the circular play system theory: 1. must have a circular function; 2. the circulation route must be safe and filled with variety of experience; 3. must include highly symbolic spaces and places; 4. must have places in the circulation where one can feel “dizziness”; 5. must be able to make a shortcut in the circulation; 6. plaza spaces should be attached to the circulation; 7. the whole should be formed as porous space. These 7 elements are the basic conditions to satisfy a children’s play environment, and it is also able to divert into more universal environment. Combined with the 7 design elements ofthe circular play system theory, the most important concept is to create a mental circulation as, “want to visit the place → go to the place →join activities at the place →feel happy →want to visit again”, by the diverse experiences supported by the physical space circulation which stimulate one’s imagination and make the environment “transparent”. As mentioned above Hiroshima Baseball Stadium is a successful example for this circulation. The Tatsumi Swimming Center has the visible connection to the surrounded environment of the old canal. The wide open window to the canal is against the conventional manners of building competition space, but the time records of the swimmers show that the result of the facility environment is good for competition ultimately. Scenes as the “open-air venues”, openable and closed design techniques make opportunities for spatial integration inside and outside activities, and bring dynamic surprise to facility users. Tajima Dome is an example to connect the outdoor environment, and Shanghai Tennis Stadium is for the changing the relation with the sky. Tajima Dome was designed to be a sports museum with play structures leading children to discover the environment, placed indoor and outdoor. It is functioning as a base center of cultural exchanging, staying type tourism and for the local regional development. Shanghai Tennis Stadium is now a well-known international stadium for the ATP Masters tournament. The openable roof brings in various events besides the tennis games as an international swimming event. It is quite obvious by these examples that the transparency of the facility will lead to success in both functional and commercial sides for not only the facility but the surrounding whole area as well.
Key words:  Sports Architecture  Visualization  Spatial Interest  Cyclical Continuity  User Perspective  Athletes’ Highest Priority  Open Venues  Integration