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基于知觉现象学的健康体育建筑室内环境舒适度评价指 标研究
陆诗亮1, 谷 梦2, 范兆祥3
1.哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居 环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实 验室,副教授,博士生导师,lushiliang@ hit.edu.cn;2.哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居 环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实 验室,硕士研究生;3.哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,寒地城乡人居 环境科学与技术工业和信息化部重点实验 室,硕士研究生
摘要:
随着健康建筑和全民健身理念的 推广,健康体育建筑正逐渐成为当前体育建筑 发展新的着眼点。本文采用知觉现象学对体 育建筑室内环境分析,从视觉舒适、听觉舒 适、嗅觉舒适、触觉舒适等方面初步确定体育 建筑室内环境舒适度评价要素,在此基础上 利用层次分析法,借鉴国内外相关标准,并权 衡我国体育设施的特有需求及客观制约,构 建健康体育建筑室内环境舒适度评价体系。
关键词:  体育建筑  舒适度  评价要素  感 官体验
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190202
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0702405); 国家自然科学基金面上项目(51578173)
Research on Evaluation Index of Indoor Environment Comfort of Healthy Sports Buildings Based onPerceptual Phenomenology
LU Shiliang,GU Meng,FAN Zhaoxiang
Abstract:
Health is a major issue for humans in the 21st century. The trend towards peopleoriented, responsive and healthy buildings gradually replacing passive green buildings as a new wind vane has spread globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) put forward the strategic idea of “Health for All” in the Ottawa Charter in 1980s. In 1994-1997, it held the theme of “Health Promotion of Sport” and “Active Life: Sports for Health” meeting. From 2006 to 2010, the Global Recommendations on the Health Benefits of Physical Activity were issued, advocating the promotion of “sports as healthy sports” worldwide. In terms of sports and health exploration, China accompanied the “Outline of the National Fitness Plan” promulgated by the State Council in 1995. After the impact of SARS and the promotion of major sports events such as the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China put forward the concept of safe, harmless and beneficial health. The proposals, such as “Healthy China 2030 plan” , “300 million people play with ice and snow”, as well as the bid for the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Winter Olympics in 2022, have made the civil health sports popular. With the promotion of healthy building and national fitness concept, healthy sports building is gradually becoming a new focus for the designation of sports architecture. As the direct carrier of the public health movement, the health design of the sports building is the benign goal of the development of the times. Healthy sports buildings refer to those sports buildings that can meet the requirements of competitions, fitness, entertainment, viewing and other activities, and can create a comfortable sports atmosphere with a health promotion role. These buildings covers stadiums, gymnasiums, swimming pools, ice sports and other types of sports building. The characteristics of large-scale, high investment, high energy consumption, and transportation difficulties have prompted China to focus on the study of building ontology. The health design of sports buildings has always been understood as green and sustainable design, and it has been mostly discussed in terms of building technology, sports technology, and energy conservation. It does not strictly distinguish between healthy sports buildings and green sustainable buildings, and ignores the fundamental needs of users’ physical, psychological, and social health for indoor environmental health under the direction of human needs. The lack of guidance of the necessary system also led to the frequent health injury incidents in the use of sports buildings that originally promoted healthy development. Not only interfere with the user’s training, competition, and watching, but also cause direct injuries to the health of the audienceand athletes. Countries have successively introduced evaluation methods for indoor environment, which aims to build a scientific and reasonable indoor environmental evaluation system. However, the standard itself is too universal. In other words, as a building that integrates professional activities such as sports competitions, fitness, rallies, and performances, it has special requirements for indoor environmental comfort. However, the customizing evaluation criteria for indoor environment health and comfort of sports buildings are still blank. In order to establish a comprehensive organic holistic assessment, we use perceptual phenomenology as a means to establish links with the indoor environment. The studies is carried out from the visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile aspects, and experience. The evaluation criteria of comfort level for sports building indoor space is closely related to physical movement. All kinds of spatial elements are integrated into the human body through the senses, which is the only cognitive body, forming a holistic experience of sensory system and space environment. Based on the users’ sense, the inner interaction between human beings and sports buildings is researched, and the factors and system composition of indoor comfort evaluation of healthy sports buildings are studied and defined. On this basis, using the analytic hierarchy process, the evaluation structure model of indoor environmental comfort of healthy sports buildings is divided into target layer, criterion layer, factor layer and index layer, and a multi-layer evaluation model is constructed. Referring to the relevant standards at home and abroad, and weighing the specific needs and objective constraints of sports facilities in China, the connotation of evaluation elements such as light environment, sight environment, color environment, sound environment, odor environment, ergonomics and thermal environment is clarified. By calculating the relative weights of the elements to be compared elements and checking the consistency, the weights of evaluation indexes are determined, and the indoor environment comfort evaluation system of healthy design sports buildings is constructed. While constructing the index system, we should complete the reflection on the design of sports architecture, advocate returning to the human body’s original demand, emphasize the body’s feeling and experience, and restore the fundamental motive of sports architecture design. It calls on architects to give consideration to users’ perception in sports architecture design, so as to arouse the society and designers’ attention and thinking for healthy sports architecture.
Key words:  Sports Architecture  Comfort  Evaluation Elements  Sensory Experience