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岜沙苗族聚落及村寨建筑的地域适应性特征
黄海静1, 董 张2
1.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设 与新技术教育部重点实验室,副教授,博 士生导师,cqhhj@126.com;2.重庆大学建筑城规学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
苗族聚落及村寨建筑在我国传统 聚落和建筑中独具特色,建造体系成熟,蕴 含丰富的地域适应性营造技术和绿色经验, 极具研究价值。以位于黔东南地区的岜沙苗 寨为例,从地理环境、气候条件、民俗文化 等方面对岜沙苗族聚落及村寨建筑的地域 适应性特征进行分析,以期对传统聚落的 传承、保护和发展以及对适应地域环境的 现代绿色建筑的营造有所启示。
关键词:  黔东南地区  苗族  岜沙苗寨  地 域适应性
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190114
分类号:
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划课题 (2017YFC0702403);中央高校基本 科研业务费前沿交叉学科培育专项 (2018CDQYJZ0032)
The Regional Adaptability Characteristics of Miao Settlement and Village Architecture in Basha
HUANG Haijing,DONG Zhang
Abstract:
Traditional settlement patterns and architectural characteristics are dynamic adaptive results produced by specific geographical environments, folk culture and behavioral needs. With its unique cultural characteristics, morphological mechanism, construction technology and green building experience, the Miao settlements and village buildings, have become an important part of Chinese traditional settlements and architecture. The Miao people is mainly based on farming, and the village settlements are mostly located on the hillsides to remain smooth land for farming. The Miao people take the family as the core, advocating the multi-family settlements, and have the Lusheng Festival, the Bullfi ghting Festival and other collective activities, so they are united and cohesive. The Miao people are mostly small families, and the family members generally do not exceed three generations, so their houses are usually small. The Miao people respect nature and worship the trees, and the local forest resources are well protected and ecological recycled. Thus, in the process of continuous social and historical development, the Miao people gradually formed a unique folk cultural connotation and its clustered life form. The Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture in southeastern Guizhou Province belongs to the subtropical monsoon humid climate with heavy rainfall, high humidity and cloudy fog. The paper takes the Miao village of Basha in southeastern Guizhou Province as an example, analyses its geographical adaptability characteristics from two aspects of Basha settlement and village architecture, explores the settlement pattern and construction mode adopted in the specifi c regional climate environment and local cultural background, and explores the scientifi c mechanism and ecological value it contains. In terms of the settlement pattern: 1) the cluster pattern that complies with the mountain. The Basha settlement is built along the topography of the mountain, forming a cluster-like pattern. The villages are dependent on the terraces, and the humanities and nature blend, refl ecting the traditional overall view of “Harmony of the Heaven and Man”. 2) The open and flexible boundaries field. The boundary of settlement is a natural barrier formed by special topography, and the natural transition between the village and the natural mountain forest forms a fl exible boundary feature that blends with nature. 3) The multi-directional arrangement to back against the mountains and along the slopes. The villages build against the mountains and the orientation is not fixed, so as to obtain a more comprehensive view and enhance defensiveness. The combination of houses and mountains is organically patched, which avoids the occlusion of light and ventilation between houses, and also enriches the sense of space and layering of the villages. 4) The centripetal structure of large dispersion and small concentration. The fi ve natural Miao villages unfolded along the mountain are surrounding the cultural center of the Basha settlement – Lusheng Ping, and its interior space is densely. The overall centripetal structure maintains a stable social and family order.In terms of village architecture: 1) the functional space adapted to the local lifestyle. In the residential mode of the Basha Miao Village, the upper layer is food storage room, the middle layer is the bedroom and the fire pit, and the bottom is the kitchen and livestock sty. The residential building is mainly composed of the Suspended Building and Platform Residence. The Suspended Building has an overhead layer, a living floor and a loft floor from bottom to top, and the Platform Residence is a two-story living layer plus a loft floor. 2) The building structure adapted to the geographical and climatic environment. The residences in Basha are adapted to the hillside topography in the form of suspending feet, and the overhead layer is also conducive to ventilation and moisture-proof. At the same time, they are adapted to the local rainy and humid climate. The residential buildings mostly adopt the Xieshan roof, and the attic under the roof serves as an inter-layer space to isolate the heat transferring of roof and promote ventilation to meet the requirements of the attic storage and effectively improve the indoor environment. 3) The architectural style adapted to the local craftsmanship. The Basha Miao Village are locally sourced, but the deforestation is moderate. By using Bucket-through Timber Frame and Mortise-Tenon Connection, the buildings are full of the unique local culture and artistic beauty. The construction of the mountain space based on mountainous situations and the treatment methods of ventilation and moisture-proof adapted to the local conditions in the Basha Miao Village are very unique. The Basha Miao Village reflect the overall view of the integration of humanity and nature, and the coordination of architecture and environment. This paper summarizes the research on the geographical adaptability and green building experience contained in the Basha Miao Village in the hope of inspiring the inheritance, protection and development of traditional settlements and the modern architecture construction based on the view of “Integration of Culture and Green”.
Key words:  Southeast of Guizhou Province  the Miao Nationality  Basha Miao Village  Regional Adaptability