|关键词: 黔东南地区 苗族 岜沙苗寨 地
|The Regional Adaptability Characteristics of Miao Settlement and Village Architecture in Basha
HUANG Haijing,DONG Zhang
|Traditional settlement patterns and architectural characteristics are dynamic adaptive
results produced by specific geographical environments, folk culture and behavioral needs.
With its unique cultural characteristics, morphological mechanism, construction technology
and green building experience, the Miao settlements and village buildings, have become an
important part of Chinese traditional settlements and architecture.
The Miao people is mainly based on farming, and the village settlements are mostly located
on the hillsides to remain smooth land for farming. The Miao people take the family as the
core, advocating the multi-family settlements, and have the Lusheng Festival, the Bullfi ghting
Festival and other collective activities, so they are united and cohesive. The Miao people are
mostly small families, and the family members generally do not exceed three generations,
so their houses are usually small. The Miao people respect nature and worship the trees, and
the local forest resources are well protected and ecological recycled. Thus, in the process of
continuous social and historical development, the Miao people gradually formed a unique folk
cultural connotation and its clustered life form.
The Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture in southeastern Guizhou Province belongs
to the subtropical monsoon humid climate with heavy rainfall, high humidity and cloudy fog.
The paper takes the Miao village of Basha in southeastern Guizhou Province as an example,
analyses its geographical adaptability characteristics from two aspects of Basha settlement
and village architecture, explores the settlement pattern and construction mode adopted in the
specifi c regional climate environment and local cultural background, and explores the scientifi c
mechanism and ecological value it contains.
In terms of the settlement pattern: 1) the cluster pattern that complies with the mountain.
The Basha settlement is built along the topography of the mountain, forming a cluster-like
pattern. The villages are dependent on the terraces, and the humanities and nature blend,
refl ecting the traditional overall view of “Harmony of the Heaven and Man”. 2) The open and
flexible boundaries field. The boundary of settlement is a natural barrier formed by special
topography, and the natural transition between the village and the natural mountain forest
forms a fl exible boundary feature that blends with nature. 3) The multi-directional arrangement
to back against the mountains and along the slopes. The villages build against the mountains
and the orientation is not fixed, so as to obtain a more comprehensive view and enhance
defensiveness. The combination of houses and mountains is organically patched, which avoids
the occlusion of light and ventilation between houses, and also enriches the sense of space and
layering of the villages. 4) The centripetal structure of large dispersion and small concentration.
The fi ve natural Miao villages unfolded along the mountain are surrounding the cultural center
of the Basha settlement – Lusheng Ping, and its interior space is densely. The overall centripetal
structure maintains a stable social and family order.In terms of village architecture: 1) the functional space adapted to the local lifestyle. In the residential mode of the Basha Miao Village, the
upper layer is food storage room, the middle layer is the bedroom and the fire pit, and the bottom is the kitchen and livestock sty. The residential
building is mainly composed of the Suspended Building and Platform Residence. The Suspended Building has an overhead layer, a living floor
and a loft floor from bottom to top, and the Platform Residence is a two-story living layer plus a loft floor. 2) The building structure adapted to
the geographical and climatic environment. The residences in Basha are adapted to the hillside topography in the form of suspending feet, and
the overhead layer is also conducive to ventilation and moisture-proof. At the same time, they are adapted to the local rainy and humid climate.
The residential buildings mostly adopt the Xieshan roof, and the attic under the roof serves as an inter-layer space to isolate the heat transferring
of roof and promote ventilation to meet the requirements of the attic storage and effectively improve the indoor environment. 3) The architectural
style adapted to the local craftsmanship. The Basha Miao Village are locally sourced, but the deforestation is moderate. By using Bucket-through
Timber Frame and Mortise-Tenon Connection, the buildings are full of the unique local culture and artistic beauty.
The construction of the mountain space based on mountainous situations and the treatment methods of ventilation and moisture-proof adapted
to the local conditions in the Basha Miao Village are very unique. The Basha Miao Village reflect the overall view of the integration of humanity
and nature, and the coordination of architecture and environment. This paper summarizes the research on the geographical adaptability and
green building experience contained in the Basha Miao Village in the hope of inspiring the inheritance, protection and development of traditional
settlements and the modern architecture construction based on the view of “Integration of Culture and Green”.
|Key words: Southeast of Guizhou Province the Miao Nationality Basha Miao Village Regional Adaptability