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国外生土建筑发展对我国的启示与借鉴
孟祥武1, 苏 醒2, 骆 婧2
1.兰州理工大学设计艺术学院,副教授, mengxiangwu2008@163.com;2.兰州理工大学设计艺术学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
生土建筑形式多样,不仅是中国传 统建筑重要的组成部分,在世界范围内也有 广泛分布。在全球能源危机背景下,生土建 筑材料的生态性能又一次受到世人瞩目。我 国研究生土建筑时间较早,但相较于发达国 家,在研究探索与经验累积等方面还存在一 定差距。本文从研究机构、教育模式、规范 标准三个不同层面对国内外生土建筑研究进 行分析判断,寻找出目前国内外生土建筑发 展的现状和需要改进之处,总结国外先进研 究经验,以高校教育作为理论支撑、规范标 准作为实践场地、研究机构作为理论与实践 结合的统筹研究单位,使三方面形成集“产 学研”为一体的完整链条,为我国生土建筑 的进一步发展提供依据。
关键词:  生土建筑  研究机构  教育模式  规范标准
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190113
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然地区科学基金项目(51568038)
Enlightenment and References of Overseas Earth Construction on China
MENG Xiangwu,SU Xing,LUO Jing
Abstract:
Earth construction is not only an important part of traditional Chinese architecture, but also widely distributed around the world in various forms. In the context of the global energy crisis, the ecological performance of biomass building materials has attracted worldwide attention, and was studied in depth. Although the study of earth construction in China started early, however, compared with the developed countries, it has a certain gap in the research achievements and experiences. This paper conducts a systematically comparative analysis on the development of domestic and foreign earth construction from three aspects: research institution, education model and standard. It points out the current situation and weaknesses of its own development in all aspects of China, and summarizes the experiences of foreign advanced research results. Taking university education as a theoretical support, standard as a practice field, research institutions as an integrated unit of theory and practice, three aspects can form a complete chain of production, learning and research. It can provide references for the further development of Chinese earth buildings. Raw earth building is not only in our country, but also in the global scope, which has a long history and wide distribution. Moreover, the performance of raw earth materials contains tremendous ecological value and potential. After the developed countries in Europe and the United States realized this point, they took the lead in carrying out the basic research and technological experiments in this field, and obtained more systematic research results in different directions. Not only that, many countries have incorporated the design, construction, acceptance and other processes of native buildings into the scope of national management, but also formulated relevant norms and standards for native buildings. At the same time, they also use internet technology to create a number of sites for native buildings, and provide more channels for the dissemination of native buildings. Our country has abundant research resources of raw earth architecture. Many universities and organizations are doing relevant research and promotion. In practical projects, enterprises are gradually exploring the application of raw earth materials in modern architectural design. However, due to the limitations of national consciousness, policy orientation and construction procedures, there is a lack of overall cooperation among universities, institutions and enterprises, a large number of research results can not be directly converted into social benefits for production, resulting in the lack of domestic research problem orientation and the formation of a perfect theoretical system. Therefore, in some aspects, there has been a lack of relevant research abroad. Through the analysis and comparison of domestic and foreign research institutions, educational models and normative standards, this paper summarizes the achievements and experiences of foreign countries and the shortcomings of our country. It aims to further enhance the relevant fields of our country by drawing lessons from the mature research system and operation mechanism of foreign countries. In this paper, the domestic and foreign systematic research of native architecture is taken as the object of study, and the standard represents production, education promotion model represents learning, and research institute represents research. The development status and interrelationship of domestic and foreign countries are elaborated respectively. Summarized in the current domestic context, the core connotation of production, learning and research is to promote schools, enterprises and scientific research institutions to make full use of different educational environments and resources, to give them full play to their respective advantages; to education as a foothold, to integrate classroom education and actual production organically, so that students can feel the close connection between professional knowledge and work skills; and finally to benefit as a result. A strong guarantee for further cooperation, such a three-in-one recycling mechanism can effectively solve the problem of disconnection between school education and market demand. Architecture, as a subject with strong practicality, can only be tested by practice. It should transform the theoretical results into reality, enhancing the practicality of theoretical knowledge, so that it can truly serve the society. Increasing environmental benefits and economic value are the primary goals of architecture in the process of practice. Architecture, as an art form of integration of construction technology and social humanities should not only be for professionals, but also for the public. In order to meet the needs of society, architects have been working hard to fulfill the social dream of housing for the residents and coordinating win-win cooperation in the industry. Satisfaction of the whole society is the fundamental criterion for evaluating the development of the construction industry. Therefore, it is expected that more academic research institutions will emerge in China to integrate the indigenous buildings into a production, teaching and research system, so as to solve the fundamental domestic problems in this regard.
Key words:  Earth Construction  Research Institute  Education Model  Standard Specification  Reference