|关键词: 风景园林 广东寺庙园林 园林发
展 地域特点 造景
|Reasearch on Development and Landscape Construction Features of Guangdong Temple Landscape
|Combination of Chinese and Western styles arises a typical Guangdong temple
landscape of Lingnan features, such as Guangxiao Temple, Nanhua Temple, Guoen Temple and
Yuanshan Temple. They are built based on the urban-landscape structure of temple gardens.
A study on the national classical temple gardens was carried out very early in China, but until
now is still quite lacking of South China’s Buddhist temple and Taoist temple. To solve this
dilemma, the paper reviewes the bypast research progress and representative results, and
realizes that we are lagging in research breadth and depth. The most initial and basic research
achievements about Guangdong Temple Landscape in the past was Mo Bozhi’s paper named
“Lingnan Courtyard”, which analyzed the characteristics of the building of Yunquan Fairy
Pavilion, Luofeng Temple and Chunyang Waterstone Court in the point of architectural space
angle. Briefly speaking, Guangdong has long-sun, near-sea, wide-hills, frequent typhoons and
thunderstorms natural environment. Luofu Mountain, Jingfu Mountain and Qingyuan Mountain
are three of the seventy-two Taoist cave heaven and earth in China, which means Guangdong is
a geomantic land to build and expand temple gardens.
Guangdong temple landscape has a long history, which can be proved from the fact that
Master Damo of India came to Guangzhou and built some temple gardens among the Wei,
Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties. In the Tang Dynasty, Qujiang in Shaoguan became
the national academic and cultural center of Buddhism after Master Huineng founded Zen
Dunhuang religion. Buddhism culture and local Baiyue culture were deeply integrated, and
Lingnan Buddhism flourished. Following the Ming Dynasty, the custom of rebuilding houses
into Buddhist temples and Buddhist temples into Taoist concepts sprang up in Guangdong.
Therefore, the coexistence of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism in the temples is quite
common. In addition, the idea of gardening is further inclusive and open, which makes the style
of temple gardens more and more similar to that of private gardens. By the Qing Dynasty, the
number of temples was about five times more than that of the Ming Dynasty. With the expansion
of living space, the old temples also increased their green space, thus enriching the landscape
of gardens. The new temples further expanded their scale and form, and adopted more corridorstyle
space layout, which had the characteristics of Southern classical gardens.
The paper teases the reason and basic process of Guangdong’s religion and its temple
landscape types through literature review and field research. There are two factors influencing
the distribution of Guangdong temple landscape. One is a willing to settle in the more
economically developed areas while the other is the missionary trajectory of religious important
persons. The following conclusions can be drawn. The Guangdong temple landscape can be
divided into four types: the central regions whose temples are on a large scale, the northern
regions whose temples are in medium scale and attention to site selection, the eastern regions
whose temple’s decoration is gorgeous and diverse, and the western regions whose temples arein small scale and simple structure.
The paper makes a thorough analysis of temple gardens in Guangdong by analyzing the spatial distribution, landscape mode, plants and
artistic conception, and finally finds out the particularity rules of these temple landscape. Firstly, the landscape space is tortuous and mysterious,
in addition, the “multi-courtyard and multi-corridor” in the monastery has a clear spatial sequence, but it is changeable and has a sense of rhythm,
which is quite different from the view of the northern monastery. The concept of garden space in Guangdong monasteries obviously inherits Laozi’s
thought of “whether there is a cause or not”. The courtyards gradually expand or converge one after another, and finally reach a climax. Although
the courtyards are separated continuously, the courtyard scenery borrows from one another, and exchanges information, which is the flow of “Qi”
emphasized by Taoism. Secondly, the temple architecture is extremely rich in Lingnan style. The temple gardens in Guangdong tend to be elegant,
tranquil and distant, while local building materials are mostly used to form a decorative style characteristic of Sino-Western combination. Thirdly,
the arrangement of flowers and trees is rich and natural. In Guangdong, besides pines and cypresses, there are more divergent frangipane, mangoes,
autumn maple and so on, which are influenced by the landscape environment of pursuing “natural nature” in the spirit of Southern metaphysics.
Plant selections is not as artificial and symmetrical as in the north, instead, preserving the authenticity and nature of tree species. Fourthly, the
landscape has an elegant and popular appreciation. The temple gardening is small and refined, combined with the enjoyment of life, and pursues the
common appreciation of elegance and vulgarity. The water in the pond is mostly on the shore of the barge pond, with natural winding coastline and
small and deep water surface. Finally, the Guangdong temples are good at expressing the image of landscape humanities with poems and lyrics.
|Key words: Landscape Guangdong Temple Landscape Landscape Development Regional Characteristics Landscape Making