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广东寺庙园林发展脉络与景观营建特点研究
方 兴
华南理工大学建筑学院,亚热带建筑科学 国家重点实验室,博士研究生,fx83809192 @163.com
摘要:
广东寺庙园林在兼容并蓄的文化氛 围中形成了鲜明的地域特点。文章简要回顾 了国内关于该类园林的研究进程和代表性成 果,认为相关研究在广度和深度上均比较滞 后;通过查阅文献和实地调研,对广东寺庙园 林的类型、所处自然环境、发展脉络和分布 原因进行了梳理;深入探析广东寺庙园林的 空间组织、风格、花木配置、水石造景和题 景五方面的内容,指出广东寺庙园林景观营建 中的地域性和特殊性。
关键词:  风景园林  广东寺庙园林  园林发 展  地域特点  造景
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190111
分类号:
基金项目:亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室资助课题 (2017KB06)
Reasearch on Development and Landscape Construction Features of Guangdong Temple Landscape
FANG Xing
Abstract:
Combination of Chinese and Western styles arises a typical Guangdong temple landscape of Lingnan features, such as Guangxiao Temple, Nanhua Temple, Guoen Temple and Yuanshan Temple. They are built based on the urban-landscape structure of temple gardens. A study on the national classical temple gardens was carried out very early in China, but until now is still quite lacking of South China’s Buddhist temple and Taoist temple. To solve this dilemma, the paper reviewes the bypast research progress and representative results, and realizes that we are lagging in research breadth and depth. The most initial and basic research achievements about Guangdong Temple Landscape in the past was Mo Bozhi’s paper named “Lingnan Courtyard”, which analyzed the characteristics of the building of Yunquan Fairy Pavilion, Luofeng Temple and Chunyang Waterstone Court in the point of architectural space angle. Briefly speaking, Guangdong has long-sun, near-sea, wide-hills, frequent typhoons and thunderstorms natural environment. Luofu Mountain, Jingfu Mountain and Qingyuan Mountain are three of the seventy-two Taoist cave heaven and earth in China, which means Guangdong is a geomantic land to build and expand temple gardens. Guangdong temple landscape has a long history, which can be proved from the fact that Master Damo of India came to Guangzhou and built some temple gardens among the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties. In the Tang Dynasty, Qujiang in Shaoguan became the national academic and cultural center of Buddhism after Master Huineng founded Zen Dunhuang religion. Buddhism culture and local Baiyue culture were deeply integrated, and Lingnan Buddhism flourished. Following the Ming Dynasty, the custom of rebuilding houses into Buddhist temples and Buddhist temples into Taoist concepts sprang up in Guangdong. Therefore, the coexistence of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism in the temples is quite common. In addition, the idea of gardening is further inclusive and open, which makes the style of temple gardens more and more similar to that of private gardens. By the Qing Dynasty, the number of temples was about five times more than that of the Ming Dynasty. With the expansion of living space, the old temples also increased their green space, thus enriching the landscape of gardens. The new temples further expanded their scale and form, and adopted more corridorstyle space layout, which had the characteristics of Southern classical gardens. The paper teases the reason and basic process of Guangdong’s religion and its temple landscape types through literature review and field research. There are two factors influencing the distribution of Guangdong temple landscape. One is a willing to settle in the more economically developed areas while the other is the missionary trajectory of religious important persons. The following conclusions can be drawn. The Guangdong temple landscape can be divided into four types: the central regions whose temples are on a large scale, the northern regions whose temples are in medium scale and attention to site selection, the eastern regions whose temple’s decoration is gorgeous and diverse, and the western regions whose temples arein small scale and simple structure. The paper makes a thorough analysis of temple gardens in Guangdong by analyzing the spatial distribution, landscape mode, plants and artistic conception, and finally finds out the particularity rules of these temple landscape. Firstly, the landscape space is tortuous and mysterious, in addition, the “multi-courtyard and multi-corridor” in the monastery has a clear spatial sequence, but it is changeable and has a sense of rhythm, which is quite different from the view of the northern monastery. The concept of garden space in Guangdong monasteries obviously inherits Laozi’s thought of “whether there is a cause or not”. The courtyards gradually expand or converge one after another, and finally reach a climax. Although the courtyards are separated continuously, the courtyard scenery borrows from one another, and exchanges information, which is the flow of “Qi” emphasized by Taoism. Secondly, the temple architecture is extremely rich in Lingnan style. The temple gardens in Guangdong tend to be elegant, tranquil and distant, while local building materials are mostly used to form a decorative style characteristic of Sino-Western combination. Thirdly, the arrangement of flowers and trees is rich and natural. In Guangdong, besides pines and cypresses, there are more divergent frangipane, mangoes, autumn maple and so on, which are influenced by the landscape environment of pursuing “natural nature” in the spirit of Southern metaphysics. Plant selections is not as artificial and symmetrical as in the north, instead, preserving the authenticity and nature of tree species. Fourthly, the landscape has an elegant and popular appreciation. The temple gardening is small and refined, combined with the enjoyment of life, and pursues the common appreciation of elegance and vulgarity. The water in the pond is mostly on the shore of the barge pond, with natural winding coastline and small and deep water surface. Finally, the Guangdong temples are good at expressing the image of landscape humanities with poems and lyrics.
Key words:  Landscape  Guangdong Temple Landscape  Landscape Development  Regional Characteristics  Landscape Making