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格式塔心理学视角下的文人园林审美解读 ——以网师园为例
许砚梅1, 官 悦2
1.中南大学建筑与艺术学院,副教授, 289733986@qq.com;2.中南大学建筑与艺术学院,硕士研究生
摘要:
文人园林的审美是古典园林研究的 重要问题。在传统文化的熏陶下,我们强调 对文人园林的诗性感悟和外形模仿,缺乏对 园林审美本质的追问。本文运用格式塔心理 学整体论和同型论的观点,从园林主题、造 园手法和园林题咏方面分析文人园林网师园 的审美特点,认为园的主题的确立与消隐是 审美心物场逐渐转变的外在表现;造园手法 是知觉组织原则的综合应用;园林题咏唤起 了“心”与“物”的同型,营造了丰富的景观意 象,促使着审美经验的完形。研究认为,格式 塔心理学原理有助于理解文人园林意境的生 成,但在分析个人和群体的审美知觉差异方 面较为不足。
关键词:  文人园林  审美  格式塔心理学  整体论  同型论
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190110
分类号:
基金项目:
The Aesthetic Interpretation of Literati Garden From the Perspective of Gestalt Psychology—Taking the Master of Nets Garden as an Example
XU Yanmei,GUAN Yue
Abstract:
The aesthetics of literati gardens is an important issue in the study of classical gardens. Under the influence of traditional Chinese culture, we praise the beauty of literati gardens and imitate the shape of classical gardens for landscape design, but seldom study the aesthetic nature of gardens. Gestalt psychology holds that people tend to organize pieces of empirical material into meaningful whole in a certain form, that is to say, perception has a gestalt tendency. For example, when we see a semicircle, we can use our imagination to fi ll in the missing parts and “see” a complete circle. Chinese classical literati gardens are famous for their implicit beauty. Many sceneries are not entirely present in front of the audience, but half hidden. However, the scenery people feel is still complete. This aesthetic process is very similar to the gestalt trend, so with the help of Gestalt Psychological Principle, we can fi nd the aesthetic law of literati gardens. Taking the Master of Nets Garden as an example, this paper analyzes the theme of gardens, gardening techniques, and the art of naming the landscape from the viewpoints of Gestalt Psychological Holism and Homogeneity. The establishment and disappearance of the theme of the garden indicates the change of aesthetic psychophysical fi eld. For literati gardens, the name of the garden represents the theme of the garden, and the scenery in the garden is the refl ection of the theme. The Master of Nets Garden was named by song Zongyuan. At that time, there was a large area of water in the garden, thus setting the theme of “To live in seclusion like a fi sherman”. QU Yuancun uses the original name. Although he has made some renovations to the buildings and plants in the garden, he has not changed the overall layout. They live in a similar era background, social stability and harmony. LI Hongyi not only reduced the water surface, built more tall buildings, but also changed the name of the garden. During this period, social unrest and lack of aesthetic interest of the owners led to the gradual disappearance of “To live in seclusion like a fi sherman”. The principle of perceptual organization is applied in the gardening techniques. The gardening process of literati gardens is like painting. For example, the decorative open work windows in the Peony Study looks like a landscape painting. This design uses the group principle of perception, blurs the dividing line between interior space and garden space, and connects interior and outdoor space into a whole. Creating space by overlapping is a unique technique of Chinese landscape painting. By building curved roads, running water and bridges, overlappingspaces in gardens can be created. For example, curved bridges stationary on the water surface can enrich the water landscape and provide a variety of viewing points. Bending streams disappear behind stones, giving people an endless feeling. The square doorway in front of the corridor is like a picture frame. Winding path leads to a secluded quiet place. From the perspective of Gestalt Psychology, overlapping designs make people confuse graphics and backgrounds, and create rich illusions and prolong tour time. The art of naming the landscape give rise to the homotype of “mind” and “object”, thus creating a rich landscape image and promoting the gestalt of aesthetic experience. Ancient scholars often thought about life when they appreciated gardens. They not only see the beauty of the scenery, but also feel artistic conception. For example, the meaning of the name of Netmaster Garden is very far-reaching. It not only summarizes the scenery in the garden, but also reflects the literati’s reflection on the social status quo. Watching the moon in the pavilion can not only see the moon, but also associate the scene of family reunion. With the changes of the times, the layout of classical literati gardens has changed repeatedly, and the theme of “live in seclusion” has gradually disappeared. However, its critical, innovative literati interest and love for the beauty of nature are still the inspiration source for contemporary landscape architecture. It is believed that Gestalt Psychology is helpful to analyze the artistic conception of literati gardens. However, it unilaterally emphasizes the role of intuition, ignores the influence of personal experience and social environment, and there are great deficiencies in the analysis of aesthetic perception differences between individuals and groups, which needs to be supplemented by the study of history, culture and social psychology.
Key words:  Literati Garden  Aesthetic Psychophysical Field  Gestalt Psychology  the Master of Nets Garden