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基于三定分析法的米兰五条街道步行友好形态特征研究
杨滨源1, 魏皓严2
1.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设与 新技术教育部重点实验室,硕士研究生;2.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设 与新技术教育部重点实验室,教授,博 导,76216866@qq.com
摘要:
文章梳理了步行友好相关的研究 文献,其中针对街道空间微观形态的研究方 面,通行的“定形—定性”或者简单“以量化 定性质”的研究方法对于形态设计的指引力 都相对较弱。“定形—定量—定性”三定结 构分析技术则指出研究的新方法。基于此, 本文在米兰选取了5条步行友好的街道,从 人的行为心理出发,采用“形态分析—数据 测算—性质评判”三向关联的结构分析技 术,分析形态特征,发现其形态设计的机 制。最后,从街道的通行空间、停靠空间、街 道界面和空间组织四个方面讨论总结指引步 行友好的街道空间形态设计模型,以为设计 研究的参考。
关键词:  城市设计  步行友好  街道形态  三定结构分析
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20190107
分类号:
基金项目:中央高校基金资助项目 (106112017CDJXY190001)
Study on the Features of Pedestrian-Friendly Morphology of Five Streets in Milan Based onMorphological-Quantitative-Qualitative Armed Structure Analysis
YANG Binyuan,WEI Haoyan
Abstract:
Walking is a natural right of human beings, and street is the material carrier of walking activity. Therefore, pedestrians are respected as subjects on walkable streets. What are the morphological characteristics of the street space in line with people's behavioral and psychological needs? What is a pedestrian-friendly street space? Based on these problems, this paper sorts out the relevant research literature on being pedestrian-friendly. And then, this paper generalizes the definition of being pedestrian-friendly, and summarizes the research content related to being pedestrian-friendly from the macro, medium and micro levels. In terms of the research on the micro-form of street space, the traditional research methods of morphologicalqualitative or simply qualitative by quantitative have relatively weak guiding force for morphology design. Therefore, some scholars have pointed out a new method for the study of street spatial morphology by combining the traditional morphological-qualitative research method with quantitative analysis, which are the morphological-quantitative-qualitative threedefi nite structure analysis technology combining morphological analysis, data measurement and property evaluation. In the three-defi nite structure analysis, the morphology, the quantity and the qualitative work at the same time. Morphological, illustrates the spatial form of the street structurally with field survey results and map data, and observes the street behavior to grasp the spatial characteristics of different walking activities; Quantitative, extracts the sample data through the measurement of morphological key data and realizes the morphological data after the structuring from multiple aspects, and then the morphological structure data were evaluated. Qualitative, concatenates and generalizes the results of street spatial form in shape and quantity of the morphological analysis and the quantitative analysis, and expounds and speculates on the relationship among the morphology, the quantity and the quality. In order to analyze the morphology, the quantity and the qualitative at the same time, this paper sorted out and summarized the spatial scale data matching with various human perception and behavior (known as behavioral psychology-morphology data) based on the works of Gehl J and HALL E T. And afterwards, so as to carry out the research on the spatial morphology of pedestrian-friendly streets, this paper adopted the three-definite structure analysis techniques to combine the behavioral psychology-morphology data and the spatial characteristics of walking behavior and activity. On the basis of the results of the pre-survey, fi ve streets in Milan were selected as the case studies in this paper in view of the three aspects of walking-oriented, diversity and convenient fi eld survey, and all of which have different people and car traffi c relationship and nature of walking-fi rst. Starting from the psychological needs of human behavior, this paper adopts the three-defi nite structure analysis technology of morphological analysis-data measured-propertiesevaluation to carry out formal investigation, in-depth analysis and discussion on the spatial morphological characteristics of streets. Firstly, it observed the behavior of pedestrians and extracted morphological data from the form of the structural street plan and the space of the ground floor. Then the spatial form of the street, the structural scale of the street form, the spatial characteristics of the walking behavior and the behavioral psychological distance are relatedly analyzed. Thus, the same and the different spatial morphological features of the five streets are discussed, and the mechanism of morphological design is summarized. Finally, based on the street space in visual plane, the correlation of spatial morphology, spatial scale and spatial characteristics of the five streets is compared and discussed. Through the discussion the morphological-quantitative-qualitative correlation design model of the pedestrianfriendly street space morphology is summarized from the four aspects-the walking space, the staying space, the street interface and the space organization, in order to serve as a reference for the research of the street microscopic space morphology design. Pedestrians focus on the rich street environment they experience from one space to another, and their experience of the environment comes from the body's various senses, which is manifested in various walking activities. Through the research of this paper, it is emphasized that the most important thing in the spatial morphology design of pedestrian-friendly streets is to understand and pay attention to the human body and its behavior psychology, so as to design the corresponding spatial morphology of streets.
Key words:  Urban Design  Pedestrian-friendly  Morphological-Quantitative-Qualitative Armed Structure Analysis