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中国私家园林的历史变迁与原真性保护研究 ——以苏州怡园为例
谷光灿1, 程 语2, 李 莉3, 郭 良3, 邓 宏4
1.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设 与新技术教育部重点实验室,副教授, guguangcan@cqu.edu.cn;2.重庆大学建筑城规学院,硕士研究生;3.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设 与新技术教育部重点实验室,讲师;4.重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设 与新技术教育部重点实验室,副教授
摘要:
中国私家园林(比如苏州等地的古 典园林)作为中国传统文化遗产不可或缺的组 成部分,对其保护的重要性是不言而喻的。然 而随着新中国的诞生,中国土地私有制的改 革与变迁,私家园林的所属及其性质发生了相 应的改变。很多私家园林作为公园对公众开 放后,园内景物也在发生着变迁。如何保护 好中国私家园林的原貌、延续古人造园时的 文化意境、传承前人留下的宝贵的文化遗产、 同时顺应其新的功能调整、实现新时代的发 展是我们应该重视的课题。苏州怡园是苏州 众多古典园林中建造较晚的一座,亦是吸取苏 州多园之长的园林,具有私家园林转变为公园 的普遍性与代表性。本文以苏州怡园为例,通 过2016年较为全面的测绘和调查所得到的较 为完善的怡园资料信息,包括对怡园最新平面 图进行绘制、统计怡园内的花木现存数量与情况等,并与历史文献中的怡园情况进行对比研究, 以刘敦桢先生的《苏州古典园林》为主要研究对象,总结归纳出怡园在布局、建筑、花木、山石上 的171处变化,针对变化之处推测分析背后的原因,追求地方文物遗产的真实性保护,为怡园的遗 产保护传承工作提出合理的建议,以期为中国其他私家园林遗产保护工作提供理论指导。
关键词:  中国私家园林  苏州怡园  历史变迁  遗产保护  原真性
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20180512
分类号:
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费资助项目 (106112014CDJZR190007)
The Research of Changes of the Chinese Historical Private Classical Garden and the Authenticityof the Protection—A Case Study of The Yiyuan
GU Guangcan,CHENG Yu,LI Li,GUO Liang,DENG Hong
Abstract:
As an indispensable part of Chinese traditional cultural heritage, the protection of Chinese private gardens such as classical gardens in Suzhou and other places are of great importance. However, with the birth of New China, the reform and change of private ownership of land in China, the ownership and nature of private gardens have changed accordingly. Many private gardens are open to public as parks, and the scenery is changing. How to protect the original appearance of Chinese private gardens, continue the cultural artistic conception of the ancient man-made gardens, inherit the precious cultural heritage left by predecessors, and adapt to its new functional adjustment to realize the development of the new era is a topic we should pay attention to. The Yiyuan is the latest private classical built garden in Suzhou. Also, it gets essence from other Suzhou gardens, representing the very best of garden arts. Junior students from Chongqing University, majoring in landscape architecture, were organized to have a relatively overall investigation of The Yiyuan in the summer of 2016. The investigation results cover the latest garden plan, the number of existing plants and some other information. Compared with Suzhou Classical Garden written by Liu Dunzhen, or other books on the garden, there are 134 changes in its layout, construction, plants and stones. By analyzing causes of the 134 changes, some advises can be shown on how to inherit and preserve the Garden of Pleasance and keep the authenticity of the protection of the garden.
Key words:  The Chinese Private Garden  The Yiyuan in Suzhou  Historical Change  Protection of Heritage  Authenticity