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基于整数尺法角度的佛光寺东大殿营造用尺复原研究
张毅捷1, 韩 效2, 丁 拓3, 马民政4, 雒国辉4, 郝正坤5
1.西南交通大学建筑与设计学院,副教授;2.西南交通大学建筑与设计学院,讲师, xhan@swjtu.edu.cn;3.西南交通大学建筑与设计学院,本科生;4.西南交通大学物理科学与技术学院,本科生;5.西南交通大学机械工程学院,本科生
摘要:
整数尺法是东亚早期的一种木结 构建筑设计方法,根据张十庆的研究,这种 方法也适用于现存规模最大、保存最为完 好的唐代遗构佛光寺东大殿,其复原唐尺约 为29.6 cm。本文从整数尺法的角度对佛光 寺东大殿20 08年的实测数据继续进行分析 研究,结果表明这栋建筑当初可能曾以1唐尺 =31.46cm的营造尺尺长进行设计和施工, 同时还可能存在一个1/3唐尺的尺度模数。另 外,又因此唐尺尺长作用下本建筑材广刚好 为1唐尺,故本文所推测的设计方案在满足 整数尺法的同时,也是“材分制”设计方法作 用结果的重要例证。文章还深入挖掘了佛光 寺东大殿的建筑技术细节,对认识整数尺法 和材分制的古代建筑设计方法和丰富唐代尺 度史研究有一定的意义。
关键词:  整数尺法  佛光寺东大殿  营造用尺  复原  尺度史
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20180214
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51308395);国家青年 科学基金(51508470);教育部人文社会 科学研究规划基金项目(17YJA770022); 国家大学生创新创业训练计划项目 (201710613041)
Reconstructive Study on Length of Carpentery Ruler of a Timber Structure of Chinese Tang DynastyNamed Main Hall of Foguangsi Temple from Perspective of Traditional Architecture Design MethodNamed Integer Scale Method
ZHANG Yijie,HAN Xiao,DING Tuo,MA Minzheng,LUO Guohui,HAO Zhengkun
Abstract:
The integer scale method (Zhengshu Chifa in Chinese and Kansu Hashiraken Sei in Japanese) is a traditional architecture design method of traditional timber structure in the early period of East Asia. According to Shiqing Zhang, this method have been used in the existing biggiest timber structure remain of Chinese Tang Dynasty the main hall of the Fogongsi Temple and according to his research the restored length of the carpentry ruler of this building is about 29.6 cm long. This study analyzes the real measurements in the report of 2008 on this building from the perspective of the integer scale method and realizes that this building should have been designed and constructed with the carpentry ruler of the length of 31.46 cm, while there should have been another modulus of one third foot (a length unit in Tang Dynasty, also named Tangchi in Chinese) long. Further just because the height of Cai in this building is just about one Tangchi long the design scheme speculated by the authors be the result of both the Integer Scale Method and Caifen System. This study has penetrated into the details of technology of this building and is meaningful in both the understanding on the integer scale method and the research on the history of the scale in Chinese Tang Dynasty.
Key words:  Traditional Architecture Design Method named Integer Scale Method (Zhengshu Chifa in Chinese and Kansu Hashiraken Sei in Japanese)  Main Hall of Foguangsi Temple  Carpentry Ruler (Yingzao Yongchi in Chinese)  Reconstructive Research  History of Scale