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人居环境视角的中国古代都城空间模式初步研究
田深圳1, 李雪铭2, 刘天宝3, 杨 俊2, 吕 芳3
1.辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,博士研究 生,shenzhen890038@163.com;2.辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,教授;3.辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,讲师
摘要:
依托人居环境科学,选取中国古 代都城为案例,对其空间形态结构、空间组 合模式以及人居环境视角的空间模式进行 研究,结果表明:空间形态结构,由分散式 的“团块结构”逐步向集中式“嵌套结构”演 化,由不规则向规则而后向不规则演变;空 间组合模式,节点要素的数量不断丰富,路径 系统由单一向多层级演化且成为城市形态的 发展轴线,空间区域由简单的区域分块向综 合性的空间组合模式演变;人居视角的城市 空间模式,秦汉人居建设中运用轴线法则, 魏晋南北朝“规划图”的出现标志着都城人 居环境建设新水平,隋唐人居营建范式成为 经典,“里坊”成为居住功能区,宋元街巷代 替里坊,夜市使得中国开始了全日制的人居生 活,明清“合院”单元、胡同体系、街道系统、 “轴线”城市等共同构成了中国古代社会最 完善的人居环境营建系统。
关键词:  空间形态结构  空间组合模式  人 居环境  中国古代都城
DOI:10.13791/j.cnki.hsfwest.20170514
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41671158); 教育部博士点基金资助项目 (20132136110001);辽宁省高等学校 优秀人才支持计划(LR2013050)
A Preliminary Study on the Spatial Pattern of Chinese Ancient Capital from the Perspective of HumanSettlements
TIAN Shenzhen,LI Xueming,LIU Tianbao,YANG Jun,LYU Fang
Abstract:
Relying on the science of human settlements, ancient Chinese capitals are elected as research case to study on the space formal structure, the spatial combination pattern and the spatial pattern from the perspective of human settlements. The results are shown as follows. Firstly, the space formal structure changes. The decentralized “mass structure” gradually evolves into a centralized “nested structure”, and the capital (settlement) of the fl at form evolves from irregular form to regular form and then to the irregular form. Secondly, the spatial combination pattern and the quantity of node element are more abundant. The path system evolves from a single structure to multi-layer, becoming the development axis of urban form, and meanwhile the spatial region evolves from the simple sub block region to the comprehensive spatial structure. Thirdly, the spatial pattern from the perspective of human settlements also changes. The axis law is used in the construction of human settlements in Qin and Han Dynasty, and the emergence of “planning map” indicates that the construction of urban human settlements has reached a new level in Wei-Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties. Human settlements reaches to the glory in Sui-Tang Dynasty, and the “lifang” becomes the residential functional area, and the real sense of the urban management system comes into being. In Song-Yuan Dynasty, the street system has replaced the “lifang”, the night fair emerges, and Chinese society begins a full-time living. In Ming-Qing Dynasty, siheyuan unit, the lane system, street system and axes city together constitute the most perfect human settlement construction system of Chinese feudal society.
Key words:  the Space Formal Structure  the Spatial Combination Pattern  Human Settlements  Ancient Chinese Capitals